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[en] Dengue virus, a RNA virus of family Flaviviradae is considered non-neurotropic. Increasing studies and case reports reveal neurological manifestations of dengue virus. In our case series, we have evaluated magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of 3 patients with dengue fever diagnosed by positive dengue NS1 antigen with neurological symptoms, which revealed nonspecific imaging features of dengue encephalitis in two cases and dengue meningoencephalitis in one case. Autopsy findings are also correlated in 2 patients who succumbed to their disease. This case series underlines the consideration of dengue encephalitis in patients of dengue fever with neurological symptoms and relevant imaging findings.
[en] To determine the area and extent of injury in hypoxic encephalopathy stages by diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) using parameters apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and fractional anisotropy (FA) values and their comparison with controls without any evidence of asphyxia. To correlate the outcome of hypoxia severity clinically and significant changes on DTI parameter. DTI was done in 50 cases at median age of 12 and 20 controls at median age of 7 days. FA and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) were measured in several regions of interest (ROI). Continuous variables were analyzed using Student's t-test. Categorical variables were compared by Fisher's exact test. Comparison among multiple groups was done using analysis of variance (ANOVA) and post hoc Bonferroni test. Abnormalities were more easily and accurately determined in ROI with the help of FA and ADC values. When compared with controls FA values were significantly decreased and ADC values were significantly increased in cases, in ROI including both right and left side of thalamus, basal ganglia, posterior limb of internal capsule, cerebral peduncle, corticospinal tracts, frontal, parietal, temporal, occipital with P value < 0.05. The extent of injury was maximum in stage-III. There was no significant difference among males and females. Compared to conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), the evaluation of FA and ADC values using DTI can determine the extent and severity of injury in hypoxic encephalopathy. It can be used for early determination of brain injury in these patients.
[en] Neurological involvement in Q Fever is unusual. We present a case of encephalitis due to Coxiella Burnetii with neuroradiologic findings on CT not described previously, consisting in areas of decreased absorption coefficient in the subcortical white matter of both hemispheres, predominantly in the right. Differential diagnosis must be established from viral encephalitis, of similar clinical presentation, which may show similar CT lesions to those in this case. (orig.)
[en] An association between neuroblastoma and opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome (OMS) was described as early as 1927 within the first report on the transformation of malignant neuroblastoma to a benign ganglioneuroma. It was not recognized at that time nor was it appreciated in the subsequent follow-up report on the same patient in 1959. Myoclonic encephalopathy of infancy, an alternative name for OMS, was described by a pediatric neurologist in 1962; however, its connection to neuroblastoma was not known. It was only in 1968 that the association between these two conditions was first reported. The neuroblastoma tumors associated with OMS are almost all small, stage I-II with no associated MYCN amplification or metastases. OMS occurs in 2-3% of patients with neuroblastoma, but neuroblastoma is found in as many as 50% of children who present with OMS. Nearly 100% of the children with neuroblastoma associated with OMS survive, and this has led to speculation that the OMS is a result of an autoimmune process, not metastases. Affected children are treated with steroids, ACTH, or intravenous immunoglobulin, but many have persistent neurologic and developmental deficits. Using the original case reported in 1927, we summarize a century of literature in this review on OMS and its association with neuroblastoma. (orig.)