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[en] In this paper, we discussed some major issues that hinder giant panda protection, such as diverse and mixed threats, habitat fragmentation, as well as the survey method to be improved, and some new protection actions appeared, such as the pilot program for the giant panda national park system and the administration of the giant panda national park was established. These information could provide important information for giant panda protection.
[en] The establishment of nature reserves is a key approach for biodiversity conservation worldwide. However, the effectiveness of nature reserves established by protecting the habitat needs of surrogate species is questioned. In this study, the Baishuijiang National Nature Reserve (Baishuijiang NNR), located in the Minshan Mountains, China, which is established mainly for the conservation of giant panda (a surrogate for the conservation of other endangered species) was selected. We quantitatively evaluated the conservation effectiveness of the reserve for giant panda and co-occurring species (here, seven protected species) using a maximum entropy model (Maxent), and analyzed spatial congruence between giant panda and other seven species. Results shown that the habitat of giant panda generally included the habitat of other seven protected species, suggesting that conservation of giant panda habitat also allows the conservation for the habitat of almost co-occurring species. Hence, the natural reserve established for giant panda as a surrogate species has a relatively high effectiveness. A high proportion of the suitable habitat for six species is inside the core zone, but a high proportion of the suitable habitat for two species is located in the experimental and buffer zones. Thus, the two species are affected by human activities. To improve the conservation effectiveness of the nature reserve, the management zones need to be amended. The result of the study will be beneficial for future conservation and management of the reserve. This study provides an effective method for evaluating the conservation effectiveness of nature reserves in other area of the worldwide.
[en] In 1993 we completed research directed at characterizing the 0. nerka populations and their interactions with other fish species in five Sawtooth Valley Lakes. Historically, Redfish, Alturas, Pettit, Stanley, and Yellow Belly Lakes provided Snake River sockeye (Oncorhynchus nerka) spawning and rearing habitat (Evermann 1896; Bjornn 1968). All of these lakes, with exception to Yellow Belly, still support 0. nerka populations. In chapter 1 of this report we describe 0. nerka spawning locations and densities, tributary fry recruitment, and results from a habitat survey completed in Redfish Lake. In chapter 2 we review foraging habits of fish that may compete with, or prey on 0. nerka populations. Kokanee fry emergence from Fishhook Creek in 1993 was 160,000. Fry emergence increased nearly five fold over that reported in 1992. Interestingly, spawning densities in 1991 and 1992 were somewhat similar (7,200 and 9,600, respectively). Discharge from Fishhook Creek was markedly higher in 1992 and may have caused the better egg to fry survival. 0. nerka spawning on sockeye beach appeared limited (< 100 fish). Additionally, sockeye beach was the only area that wild or residual sockeye were located. Of 24 adult sockeye released into Redfish Lake, from the brood stock program, two were found spawning in the south end of the lake. Results from the habitat survey indicated that substrate composition on sockeye beach is poor. 0. nerka diet patterns shifted from chironomid prey in June zooplankton prey in September. Rainbow trout consumed a broadrange of prey, with few instances of significant diet overlap with 0. nerka. Northern squawfish, bull char, and lake trout preyed on 0. nerka. Utilization of 0. nerka by predators was greatest in September
[en] This paper presents the results of exploratory investigation on the flora of the Shigar valley, Central Karakorum Mountains, conducted in 2013-2016. The studies completed with the documentation of 345 vascular plants distributed in 206 genera and 63 families with maximum species of flowering plants. Asteraceae and Saussurea were leading taxa in terms of family and genera respectively. Arid mountain slopes was main habitat type sharing maximum species (84) in the native flora. Generally, the sum of species exposed herbaceous habit (301 species) with prevalence of perennial herbs (220 species). Life form grouping revealed the excessive occurrence of Hemicryptophytes (139 species). Distribution wise, the Irano-Turanian elements (35.36%) were the most frequent species co-dominating with Western Himalayan elements (28.69%). Some endemic and critically endangered species for instance Festuca hartmannii, Aconitum violaceum var. weilerei, Anaphalis chitralensis, Asperula oppositifolia subsp. baltistanica, Pedicularis staintonii, Pyrola rotundifolia subsp. karakoramica, and Hedysarum falconeri are also recognized. The flora is under extreme natural and human hazards and emphasizes the involvement of international and national organizations dedicated to biological conservation for effective protection of flora particularly the rare and endemic taxa. (author)
[en] The paper discusses the ornithological importance of Palm Islands Reserve by reviewing its habitats and avifauna and by enumerating the endangered or vulnerable species that have been recorded in the reserve between 1995 and 2000. The authors compare the recent and old information in view of improving the management plans of the reserve. (author)
[en] Normal operations at the Kihansi power station in Tanzania may be endangering the spray toad (Nectophrynoides asperginis). The problem is that reduced water flows (as a result of abstraction for hydroelectricity) results in insufficient spray for the toads, but so far nobody knows what flow rate will ensure survival. Additional water sprays are provided to irrigate parts of the wetlands habitat. The problem has yet to be resolved
[en] The Western Himalayan alpines are among the most diverse ecological locations having diverse vegetation and provide a wide range of ecosystem services. The complex and dynamic Deosai Plateau is the World’s 2nd highest plateau with an average elevation of 4500m. Current study was designed to investigate floristic diversity, phytosociological attributes, endemism and conservation status of flora of Deosai National Park, North Pakistan. Vegetation sampling was carried out by using random sampling through quadrat method at selected sites. A total of 8 plant communities were recorded from the area. The Floristic composition of present study consisted of 132 species belonging to 101 Genera and 41 families. Hemicryptophytes were recorded as the dominant life form followed by geophytes and Therophytes whereas Leptophylls and Nanophylls were dominant leaf spectra. The average value of Shannon diversity was calculated as 1.383 whereas Simpson diversity was 0.447. The calculated values of Evenness and richness were 0.882 and 1.185 respectively whereas the average maturity index was 30.27. A total of 63 plants species were found to be threatened having very low (<1%) importance values with 4 species recorded as critically endangered and endangered. Phytogeographic investigations revealed that 41 plant species (33%) were endemic to the Whole Himalayas, 18 species (14%) Endemic to Western Himalayas, 27 plants (22%) as tropical Asian and 34 plant species (27%) recorded as cosmopolitan. Principal component analyses (PCA) revealed Moisture and altitude as the key factors governing the species composition and community structure in the study area. Grazing pressure was observed as a major threat to the palatable species. It is recommended to extensively explore the population dynamics of endemic species as well as the spread of invasive species in DNP with the focus to conserve the precious threatened flora. (author)
[en] The present study aimed to develop effective In vitro methods by means of callus and axillary buds for ex-situ conservation and rapid micro-propagation of a critically endangered, narrow endemic species Haplophyllum gilesii (Hemsel) C.C. Townsend, present in Pakistan confined to Gilgit Baltistan region. Media used was MS basal with various combinations of growth regulators (kinetin, GA3, BAP, IBA and NAA) for shoot multiplication, callus induction, regeneration and root induction. Supplementation of 2.5mgL-1 BAP for 35 days of culture subsequently resulted in maximum number (6.8) of shoots. Healthy roots were induced effectively with addition of GA3 (1.5mgL-1) and (0.4mgL-1) kinetin in half strength MS media. 2.5mgL-1 NAA, 0.25mgL-1 kinetin and 2.5mgL-1BAP exhibited effective initiation and proliferation of callus while best regeneration was obtained at the medium having 1mgL-1 IBA. Acclimatized plantlets exhibited 100% survival rate for one week, after one month 60%, while survival rate after 5 months in pots was 45%. The protocol developed here can be used effectively for in-situ and ex-situ conservation as well as mass multiplication for production of H. gilesii plantlets and callus to assess its advantages without disturbing wild populations of this plant. There is still need to investigate secondary metabolic and molecular composition of this plant. (author)
[en] Spontaneous diseased animals decrease the number of experimental used. Chemicalien should have transgenerational effects. Reproductive organs are one of the most sensitive system for the pollution. Extended length of life increase the incidence of 'new' diseases. Felidae model for biotechnology and endangered species
[en] Valuation of endangered species is important in many circumstances, and particularly when assessing the impact of large accidental oil spills. Previous studies have tested the effects of including in the contingent valuation survey reminders about the existence of diverse substitutes (in terms of other natural resources also in danger of extinction in the same area, other programs to be valued, or alternative uses of money). We include a reminder about the existence of the same biological species not being under danger of extinction elsewhere. We believe this reminder allows individuals to make an easy assessment of the biological scarcity of the species they are supposed to value. Thus, the key difference with previous studies is that valuation of endangered species is combined with an assessment of preferences towards conservation of local and native species. Our WTP results are not sensitive to the information provided about other foreign substitutes. Implications of this finding are discussed. (author)