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[en] Bringing attention to fuel poverty as a distinct manifestation of social inequality has asserted the place of affordable warmth in the profile of contemporary rights and entitlements. As such, fuel poverty can be understood as an expression of injustice, involving the compromised ability to access energy services and thereby to secure a healthful living environment. In this paper, we consider how fuel poverty may be aligned to various alternative concepts of social and environmental justice. Whilst recognising that fuel poverty is fundamentally a complex problem of distributive injustice, we argue that other understandings of injustice are also implicated and play important roles in producing and sustaining inequalities in access to affordable warmth. Addressing fuel poverty has to involve seeking justice in terms of the cultural and political recognition of vulnerable and marginalised social groups and pursuing procedural justice through opening up involvement and influence in decision-making processes. We make this argument both in theoretical terms, and through considering the experience of fuel poverty advocacy and policy development in the UK. Opportunities for future action may be illuminated through such interconnected justice framings as wider awareness of energy, climate and poverty issues emerge. - Highlights: ► We examine fuel poverty through different concepts of social and environmental justice. ► UK experience is used to inform and exemplify our analysis. ► Distributional justice is central but insufficient on its own. ► Procedural justice and justice as recognition are key necessary goals in the struggle for affordable warmth.
[en] This paper presents a methodology for quantitatively assessing energy security. The methodology is tailored to suit the limited data availability of Malaysia and other Southeast Asian countries. In this methodology, energy security is conceptualized as having 5 core aspects which sub-divide into 13 elements. A total of 35 indicators have been identified as measurements of these 13 elements. The methodology details the means by which the indicator results are converted into a common unit i.e. a normalization process into a 0-to-1 scale. Also detailed are the weights used in the weighted-average process by which normalized indicators are synthesized into composite scores representing the 13 elements, the 5 core aspects, and 1 overall energy security index. - Highlights: • Thirty-five indicators representing 13 elements grouped into five aspects of energy security. • Normalization process of converting indicator results into a standard unit. • Synthesis of results into indexes for elements, aspects and overall energy security. • Designed to suit data availability of Malaysia and other Southeast Asian countries. • Suitable for multi-year and multi-country application
[en] As energy prices continue to rise to reflect the real cost of carbon, the numbers of households in fuel poverty is increasing rapidly. This paper uses a unique data set to explore one alternative measure of fuel poverty based on whether consumers feel able to afford their energy, similar to one introduced by the government a few years ago. We explore the links between an expenditure based and our subjective measure of fuel poverty and compare these differences with those between official measures. Amongst low income households, 28% spent more than a tenth of their income on energy in the home, and so would be likely to qualify as fuel poor under the most usual definition; but only 16% felt unable to afford sufficient energy to keep their homes warm. Amongst this group who felt they had difficulty in affording sufficient energy, less than half were ‘expenditure’ fuel poor. The paper argues that reintroduction of a self-reported measure by the government would be a valuable aid to policy development. - Highlights: ► Defines a subjective measure of fuel poverty (unable to afford heating). ► Fewer households feel fuel poor than meet the official definition of fuel poverty. ► Though they are positively related, different factors affect the two measures. ► Those on standard and prepayment metres more likely to feel fuel poor. ► Large families spend a higher proportion of income on energy but are no more likely to feel fuel poor.
[en] Highlights: • The analysis reveals that energy security research is highly multidisciplinary. • Diversification is important for ensuring security in the energy supply process. • A multilayered overview of the energy supply process is important for energy risk management. • Consumer lifestyle innovation will be a part of energy security in the future. - Abstract: After the Fukushima nuclear disaster, a reassessment of the energy system is needed in order to include such aspects as human security and resilience. More open and careful discussions are needed concerning the various risks and uncertainties of future energy options, both in Japan and globally. In this paper, we aim to offer a fundamental basis for discourse on energy security by analyzing the status and trends in academic publications on that issue. Our bibliometrics analysis indicates that research has shifted from promoting strategies for ensuring the self-sufficiency of the primary energy to diversification of the secondary energy supply chain by introducing energy networks consisting of an infrastructure established through international coordination. In the literature, the concept of energy security is ambiguous and allows for multiple interpretations. Our results illustrate the existence of highly multidisciplinary topics within energy security, which can be categorized into four perspectives: geopolitical, economic, policy related, and technological
[en] This article explores the challenges associated with governing the competing objectives of energy security and environmental sustainability. It examines this challenge in the context of Hong Kong and the city's recent fuel mix consultation. Based on the results of ten interviews with public and private stakeholders in the Hong Kong power sector, the findings analyze the perceptions of stakeholders with respect to the tension between sustainability and core pillars of energy security — accessibility, affordability and reliability. It concludes with four policy recommendations for managing and potentially moving beyond the energy dilemma, including suggestions for locally feasible sustainable energy, long-term pathways to decarbonization, policy changes on tariffs, incentives and pricing, and collaboratively co-governing clean energy. - Highlights: • Contests between energy security and environmental sustainability are a key challenge for energy governance. • Hong Kong fuel mix consultation shows tension between energy security and environmental sustainability. • Clearest pathway to low-carbon power sector is via unpopular cooperation with mainland China. • Recommended that city make new efforts to realize new pathways to low carbon power sector reform.
[en] This paper outlines why the definition of fuel poverty is important in policy formulation and describes how the Government's current definitions evolved from the original concept. It discusses the determination of income and fuel costs and the possibilities for a relative and common European measure. It examines problems inherent in assessing fuel costs as a percentage of income and puts forward the arguments for a ‘budget standard’ approach. The paper illustrates how the size of the problem depends on the definition and chosen threshold and suggests advantages for a rating scale. It illustrates how the income composition and thresholds also govern the distribution of the target populations and the relative importance of the main causal factors, and examines the consequent policy implications. It explores the definition of vulnerable households and the importance of severity and questions whether the UK fuel poverty strategy is targeted at households least able to afford their fuel costs (as the name implies) or primarily those at risk from excess winter and summer mortality and morbidity. Finally, after examining the role of supplementary indicators, it looks at the opportunities for changing the definition and comments on the Government review of the definition and targets. - Highlights: ► There are major failings in the existing official definitions of fuel poverty. ► expressing fuel costs as a percentage of income is a poor indicator of fuel poverty. ► A budget standard approach provides a more consistent, meaningful and fairer measure. ► The scale and nature of the problem changes dramatically with different definitions. ► The definition is crucial to the mix of policies and allocation of resources required.
[en] Conclusion: • With good support from government and committed involvement from academia and industry, the fast reactor programme in india is poised for huge improvement in next few decades. • PFBR is the first large size FBR being built in the country and therefore there is scope for cost reduction for future FRRs with the standardisation of technology and series construction. • Given that FBR is an important component in India’s quest for energy security and a link to the eventual utilisation of thorium, there is merit in pursuing this technology
[en] The split incentive problem concerns the lack of appropriate incentives to implement energy efficiency measures. In particular, low income tenants face a phenomenon of energy poverty in which they allocate significantly more of their household income to energy expenditures than other renters. This problem is substantial, affecting 1.89% of all United States' energy use. If effectively addressed, it would create a range of savings between 4 and 11 billion dollars per year for many of the nation's poorest residents. We argue that a carefully designed program of incentives for participants (including landlords) in conjunction with a unique type of utility-managed on-bill financing mechanism has significant potential to solve many of the complications. We focus on three kinds of split incentives, five concerns inherent to addressing split incentive problems (scale, endurance, incentives, savings, political disfavor), and provide a detailed policy proposal designed to surpass those problems, with a particular focus on low-income tenants in a U.S. context. - Highlights: ► We demonstrate the significant impact of the split incentive on low-income tenants. ► We discuss split incentive characteristics, and policy failures. ► We described an on-bill financing model with unique features. ► This policy has protections and incentives for tenants and landlords.
[en] The European Union is more and more dependent on foreign markets for its energy supplies: its imports reach 80% of its needs in oil and more than 60% of its needs in coal and natural gas. The issue of the security of energy supplies has 2 aspects: the dependency on energy imports and the assurance of the stability (in terms of price, volume) of these imports. Nuclear energy presents several assets that oil, natural gas, and coal are short of. First the availability of large resources for a long time (uranium mines, reprocessing and recycling), secondly a low impact of resource price fluctuations on the production cost, thirdly a very easy storage of uranium, fourthly a better energy efficiency for the next generation of nuclear systems. These assets make nuclear power a necessary part for a reasonable and balanced energy mix. (A.C.)