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[en] This paper reports that from instant sensation to virtual pariah, cold fusion has had a stormy history since two University of Utah researchers first announced its discovery in March 1989. Research into this mysterious phenomenon has been plagued both by technical difficulties in replicating experimental results and by sometimes bitter controversy over scientific standards and personal credibility. Now, in a somewhat calmer atmosphere, significant progress is being made through experiments that are reproducible over long periods of time and under a variety of conditions. These experiments indicate that nuclear reactions may indeed occur at room temperature in a crystal lattice in ways not understood before. It's time we stopped calling these reactions cold fusion, says David Worledge, EPRI coordinator of research in this area. There is now good evidence that cold nuclear reaction of some sort are taking place, but also growing indications that they aren't conventional deuterium-deuterium fusion, as first assumed. Also, the cold nuclear reactions inferred from the neutrons that have been detected are not numerous enough to be responsible for the excess heat production still being reported in some experiments. In their original work, University of Utah scientist Martin Fleischmann and Stanley Pons used a simple laboratory apparatus consisting of a palladium rod surrounded by a platinum coil and immersed in heavy water. They reported that when a small electric current was applied to the cells, deuterium nuclei from the heavy water were driven into the palladium rod, where they were held in the metal lattice and apparently fused, producing 4 watts of heat for each watt of electric power supplied
[en] The 'witch of Agnesi' is proposed as analytical distribution alternative to the Gaussian one in atmospheric-diffusion estimates. The Agnesi distribution can be derived from the 'K theory' and leads finally to algebraic formulae without exponentials, so more easily treated either by hand or by a computer than a Gaussian. Comparing both the Agnesi and the Gaussian distribution with the data set from the EPRI diffusion experiment (plains site), both distribution show a poor fir of the experimental data, sightly better for the Agnesi distribution when literature values for σy and σz are used
[en] As the primary material of construction for nuclear power plant structures, concrete naturally represents the largest fraction of contaminated material by surface area. As such, decontamination of concrete is a major activity during decommissioning projects. Decontamination of concrete is challenging due to the variable depth of contamination resulting from the porosity of the material, and the presence of cracks and penetrations. EPRI has initiated a 3-year project to develop and demonstrate new or enhanced techniques for concrete decontamination. The 2 major tasks for the phase-1 of this project are first: an assessment of the concrete decontamination techniques and secondly, to adapt or develop techniques for improved concrete decontamination.
[en] Summary report for Fiscal Year 2011 activities associated with the Constellation Pilot Project. The project is a joint effor between Constellation Nuclear Energy Group (CENG), EPRI, and the DOE Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program. The project utilizes two CENG reactor stations: R.E. Ginna and Nine Point Unit 1. Included in the report are activities associate with reactor internals and concrete containments.
[en] OAK- B135 Engineering for fatigue is an essential concern in piping systems. Addressing this concern, the ASME Section III and ANSI B31.1 Codes provide stress indices and stress intensification factors (SIFs) to be used in the design and evaluation of Class 1, 2 and 3 systems. In recent research cosponsored by EPRI and the U.S. DOE, new test data have been developed for comparison with the ASME stress indices and SIFs. This report presents the results of fatigue tests on eccentric reducers, taking into account the directionality of the loading. As detailed in the report, the results can help to improve the evaluation of reducers and can help to reduce unnecessary conservatism in piping system design
[en] EPRI has been conducting nuclear safety research for a number of years with the primary goal of assuring the safety and reliability of the nuclear plants. The visibility is emphasized by sponsoring or participating in large scale test demonstrations to credibly support the complex computations that are the basis for quantification of safety margins. Recognizing the success of the airline industry in receiving favorable public perception, the authors compare the design and operation practices of the airline industry with those of the nuclear industry practices to identify the elements contributing to public concerns and unfavorable perceptions. In this paper, authors emphasize the importance of proper communications of research results to the public in a manner that non-specialists understand. Further, EPRI supported research and results in the areas of source term, seismic and structural engineering research, analysis using probabilistic risk assessment (PRA), quantification of safety margins, digital technology development and implementation, and plant transient and performance evaluations are discussed in the paper. (orig./HP)
[en] With the possibility of continuing delays in the building of federal spent nuclear fuel repositories, US utilities are looking more and more to increase their on-site storage capacity. The Electric Power Research Institute has undertaken some major demonstration projects in this area and several proven storage options described here are now available. (author)
[en] EPRI developed two economic evaluation tools, LcmVALUE and LcmPLATO. KHNP has used the LcmVALUE tool to assess the mid-term and longterm structure, system and components (SSC's) investment plan. LcmVALUE uses the investment cost, failure rate, preventive maintenance cost, and other input parameters to calculate the net present value (NPV) and benefit/investment (B/I) ratio. The results are useful for selecting the most cost-effective investment plan. This tool shows just one result, namely the amount gained or lost. However, the input parameters can be changed by a foreign effect such as the market environment or by their own inaccuracies (such as the failure rate of the SSC). Accordingly, a parameter sensitivity analysis and an uncertainty analysis are needed to determine the influence of changes in the input parameters. We introduce the two methods of analysis as well as a newly developed economic evaluation program