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[en] Compositional zonation in ignimbrites is relatively common, and is often inferred to record gradual withdrawal by an eruption of a density-stratified magma chamber (with silicic magma towards the top and more dense, mafic magma at the bottom). We show that this model does not match observations at the ca. 0.1 Ma Zaragoza ignimbrite from Los Humeros caldera in central Mexico. Detailed petrologic studies reveal a more complex scenario: the ignimbrite exhibits a 'double' vertical zonation based on the compositions of pumice lapilli. We present evidence for mingling and limited mixing occurred during or immediately before the caldera-forming eruption. One possibility to explain the observations is that the ignimbrite eruption occurred in response to intrusion of a hybridized andesitic magma into a rhyodacitic magma chamber.
[en] The growth of the crown and root in the canine tooth of beagle dogs were observed macroscopically and radiographically, and changes of occlusion with age were investigated. Completion of growth in the crown of the canine tooth was observed in both mandible and maxilla, and its eruption was accompanied by development of the dental root. The permanent canine erupted on the lingual side of deciduous canine in the mandible, and on the mesial side of the deciduous canine in the maxilla. Movement of the permanent canine to normal occlusal position(buccal direction in mandibular canine, and distal direction in maxillary canine)was followed by the loss of the deciduous canine. Coexistence of the permanent and deciduous canines occurred for about 2.4 weeks in the maxilla and about 1.4 weeks in the mandible, on average. Macroscopically, the growth of the permanent canine was completed by 33 weeks of age in the mandible and about 34 weeks of age in the maxilla. The mature root of the permanent canine was recognized radiographically at about 43 weeks of age in the mandible and 47 weeks of age in the maxilla
[en] La Peligrosa Caldera is located at Sierra Colorada (470 15'S, 710 40' W) in the Chon-Aike silicic LIP. It represents an unique window to understand the eruptive mechanisms that prevailed throughout the ignimbritic flare-up in Southern Patagonia during middle to late Jurassic times. Key pieces of lithologic and structural evidences are taken into account to reconstruct the volcanic structure.
[en] Two large northern polar crown prominences that erupted on 2010 April 13 and 2010 August 1 were analyzed using images obtained from the Extreme UltraViolet Imager on the twin Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory spacecraft. Several features along the prominence legs were reconstructed using a stereoscopic reconstruction technique developed by us. The three-dimensional changes exhibited by the prominences can be explained as an interplay between two different motions, namely helical twist in the prominence spine, and overall non-radial equatorward motion of the entire prominence structure. The sense of twist in both the prominences is determined from the changes in latitudes and longitudes of the reconstructed features. The prominences are observed starting from a few hours before the eruption. Increase in height before and during the eruption allowed us to study the kinematics of the prominences in the two phases of eruption, the slow-rise and the fast-eruptive phase. A constant value of acceleration was found for each reconstructed feature in each phase, but it showed a significant change from one leg to the other in both the prominences. The magnitude of acceleration during the eruptive phase is found to be commensurate with the net effect of the two motions stated above.
[en] We present the first evidence for occurrences of magnetic interactions between a jet, a filament and coronal loops during a complex event, in which two flares sequentially occurred at different positions of the same active region and were closely associated with two successive coronal mass ejections (CMEs), respectively. The coronal loops were located outside but nearby the filament channel before the flares. The jet, originating from the first flare during its rise phase, not only hit the filament body but also met one of the ends of the loops. The filament then underwent an inclined eruption followed by the second flare and met the same loop end once more. Both the jet and the filament eruption were accompanied by the development of loop disturbances and the appearances of brightenings around the meeting site. In particular, the erupting filament showed clear manifestations of interactions with the loops. After a short holdup, only its portion passed through this site, while the other portion remained at the same place. Following the filament eruption and the loop disappearance, four dimmings were formed and located near their four ends. This is a situation that we define as 'quadrupolar dimmings'. It appears that the two flares consisted of a sympathetic pair physically linked by the interaction between the jet and the filament, and their sympathy indicated that of the two CMEs. Moreover, it is very likely that the two sympathetic CMEs were simultaneously associated with the disappearing loops and the quadrupole dimmings.
[en] Three main types of collapse calderas can be defined, 1) summit caldera: those formed at the top of large volcanoes, 2) classic caldera: semi-circular to irregular-shaped large structures, several km in diameter and related to relatively large-volume pyroclastic products, and 3) graben caldera: explosive volcano-tectonic collapse structures from which large-volume, ignimbrite-forming eruptions occurred through several fissural vents along the graben master faults and the intra-graben block faults. These in turn can collapse at least with three styles: 1) Piston: when the collapse occurs as a single crustal block; 2) Trap-door: when collapse occurs unevenly along one side while the opposite side remains with no collapse; 3) Piece-meal: when collapse occurs as broken pieces of the crust on top of the magma chamber.
[en] The volcano-tectonic events at the Villa de Reyes Graben (VRG), in the southern Sierra Madre Occidental, Mexico, include 1) a regional NNE fault system developed before 32 Ma, 2) this pre-32 Ma faulting controlled the emplacement of 31.5 Ma dacitic domes, 3) NE faulting at 28 Ma that displaced the 31.5 Ma dacitic domes and formed the VRG, as well as the oblique grabens of Bledos and Enramadas oriented NW, 4) emplacement of Panalillo ignimbrite at 28 Ma filling the VRG and erupting from fissures related to the oblique grabens, and eruption of Placa basalt apparently also from fault-controlled vents.
[en] The authors had observed a case of cleidocranial dysostosis of 42 year old unmarried woman. The observation was founded upon roentgenogram of skull P-A view, orthopantomograph, cephalometric view, chest P-A view , and wrist X-ray view. The patient gave a dwarfish impression with 145 cm body height and concave mandibular prognathic facial feature. The palate was narrowed and extremely high arched. The eruption state of teeth was extremely poor, only four teeth were erupted, composed of upper third molar and lower three deformed teeth. The skull P-A view of reontgenogram reveals overlying metopic suture, and the suture are delayed up to date and many wormian bones are formed. On the cephalometric view, the maxilla is underdeveloped and produce the false mandibular prognathism. Twenty four impacted teeth can be detected by orthopantmograph, twelve in upper jaw and twelve in lower jaw. There are many supernumerary teeth, one in upper jaw and seven in lower jaw. On the chest P-A view, the clavicles are totally aplastic, but a vestige of clavicle is visible in the right side. On the wrist roentgenogram, the epiphyseal ossification of distal phalanx, mesial phalanx, and proximal phalanx is delayed.
[en] We present an analysis of caldera evolution at Miyakejima in 2000. The caldera changed its structure from piston to funnel subsidence during its growth. The successive subsidence of the central block induced landslides at the caldera wall, which successively enlarged the diameter of the caldera.