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[en] Russian crude-oil production is still increasing. In 2000 the annual production 6.48 mb/d was about 6% higher than a year before. In 2001 the production is expected to rise near the level 7 mb/d, so the increase in production volume is fast. However, the production is still far away from the maximum level of the former Soviet Union, 12 mb/d. At the moment Russia is the second largest oil producer right after Saudi Arabia. The increase in production is based on intensified use of old oil fields caused by improved technology. The oil export of Russia far abroad in 2000 was 2.5 mb/d and near abroad into FSU countries only about 180 000 b/d. The recent export of crude-oil has been near the maximum export capacity corresponding to 2.7 mb/d. About 61 million tons of oil products were exported in 2000, and even the export of oil products is increasing. Most of this was gas oil and heavy fuel oil, but also the export of gasoline was significant. The export of oil and oil products is mainly based on shipments, but also the share of train transport is high. Nearly all the crude oil is transported west either by ships or via pipelines. The share of railway transport is only few percents. Russia will continue its own oil pumping policy despite of the appeals of OPEC for reduction of oil production. Opinion in Russia is that if the increase of production and export serves the interests of Russia, it will also be carried out. The target value for crude oil for 2002 is 22 USD per barrel. The Russian crude oil production is estimated to grow up to 7.4 - 8.4 mb/d by the year 2010
[en] Highlights: • CO2 effects of exports and imports first time examined for an exclusive panel of oil-exporters. • We used two different measures of CO2 emissions: Consumption-based and Territory-based. • We investigated the impacts of exports and imports separately on these measures. • Exports and imports have significant and offsetting effects on Consumption-based CO2. • Exports and imports have insignificant effects on the Territory-based CO2. - Abstract: While international trade and Carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions have been well-studied, a panel of only oil-exporting developing economies has not been considered. This paper addresses that gap by investigating the role of the trade in CO2 emissions using a panel of nine oil exporting countries. In addition, we examine the impacts of exports and imports separately, and we consider two measures of CO2 emissions-those based on consumption, and thus, adjusted for trade, and those based on territory (i.e., the typical approach in the literature). The results from cointegration and error correction modeling show that exports and imports have statistically significant impacts of opposite signs on Consumption-based CO2 emissions in both the long- and short-run and that the effects of changes in the trade-CO2 emissions relationship will fully be absorbed around three years. However, exports and imports are statistically insignificant for Territory-based CO2 emissions.
[en] This article deals with the measures taken to ensure uninterrupted oil- and gas supply from the Norwegian petroleum fields in the North Sea to the customers. Although there are about 700 interruptions of the gas deliveries on the shelf each year, all obligations are met. This demonstrates the flexibility of the delivery system. In Norway, the consumption of oil is only 7% of the oil produced and virtually no gas is consumed. Consequently, Norwegian economy depends heavily on the export, and so the supply security is very important. The production system involves a complex interplay between wells, platforms, landing pipelines and terminals. In a critical situation, the delivery obligations for gas are the first priority. The Norwegian shelf in the North Sea is partitioned into four regions: Tampen, Ekofisk, Oseberg and Troll. Independently of who is the owner or operator, the regions assist each other in delivering the gas that is to be exported at any given time
[en] The Director General has received a letter of 15 November 2001 from the Resident Representative of the People's Republic of China concerning the export of nuclear material and of certain categories of equipment and other material
[en] The main purpose of this research is to explore the effects of technological factors on energy intensity, including indigenous research and development (R&D) activity, technology spillovers through openness in the form of foreign direct investment, export, and import in one united framework. By scrutinising panel data of China's 30 provinces from 2000 to 2013, this article first uses fixed effects and feasible generalised least squares to investigate the effects of these technological factors on energy intensity by taking both economic structure and energy price as control variables. The results show that indigenous R&D plays a crucial and dominant role in the declining energy intensity among the four technological factors. In addition, technology spillovers coming from the openness of foreign direct investment and import decrease energy intensity except for the export. However, further estimation with the panel threshold model confirms that the effects of technology spillovers on energy intensity depend on the levels of local inputs of R&D expenditure intensity and the full-time equivalent of R&D personnel, allowing us to formulate different policies and measures aimed at encouraging more efficient use of energy that takes into full consideration the characteristics and situations of the technology spillovers. - Highlights: • We analyse the effects of different technological factors on energy intensity in China. • The technology spillovers coming from the openness decrease energy intensity except for the export. • Indigenous R&D hampers the export's spillover effect on energy intensity. • Full-time equivalent of R&D personnel promotes the spillover effect on energy intensity.
[en] Paramyxoviruses replicate in the cytoplasm with no obvious requirement to interact with the nucleus. Nevertheless, the W protein of the highly lethal bat-borne paramyxovirus Nipah virus (NiV) is known to undergo specific targeting to the nucleus, mediated by a single nuclear localisation signal (NLS) within the C-terminal domain. Here, we report for the first time that additional sites modulate nucleocytoplasmic localisation of W. We show that the N-terminal domain interacts with importin α1 and contributes to nuclear accumulation of W, indicative of a novel N-terminal NLS. We also find that W undergoes exportin-1 mediated nuclear export, dependent on a leucine at position 174. Together, these data enable significant revision of the generally accepted model of W trafficking, with implications for understanding of the mechanisms of NiV immune evasion. - Highlights: • A new model for Nipah virus W protein nucleocytoplasmic trafficking is proposed. • Nipah W protein is shown to undergo active nuclear export via exportin-1. • Nipah W nuclear import is mediated by multiple nuclear localisation signals.
[en] Highlights: • We examine the exposure of sectoral stock returns to oil risk factors among BRICS markets. • We introduce oil volatility index to account for oil market uncertainty and Random Forest model for importance of variables. • We find that the sensitivity of sectoral stocks to oil-risk factors is not uniform with heterogenous exposure across markets. • Oil volatility index and oil price are found to be the most significant risk transmitting factors to in BRICS countries • Oil-risk factors show asymmetric effect on sectoral returns for major oil exporting markets (Russia and Brazil). • Random Forest-VAR model provides methodological contribution to the literature. In this paper, we examine the exposure of sectoral equity returns to changes in oil risk factors among BRICS markets. The paper combines VAR model together with the Random Forest technique to provide a novel framework which overcome some weaknesses in VAR modelling and help in the selection of oil-risk factors considered. Our results in general show that the response of sectoral stocks to changes in oil-risk factors is not homogenous and their sensitivities are not uniform across BRICS markets. Stock returns of Basic Materials, Financials and Industrials sectors show consistently negative sensitivity to crude oil volatility (OVX) and oil price shocks for major oil importers, whereas sectoral stocks among major oil exporters seems to demonstrate systematic pattern. To explain sectoral stock variations, the results reveal OVX and oil to be the most significant risk transmitting factors in BRICS, irrespective of whether the market is a major oil importer or exporter. However, our results also confirm the presence of asymmetric effects in sectoral stocks for Brazil and Russia while no such evidence is found for India, China and South Africa. Overall, the findings suggest that the manner in which sectors respond to fluctuations in oil-risk factors varies between different sectors and it depends on the oil characteristics of the markets, nature of sectors and the type of oil-risk factors considered.
[en] NSG(Nuclear Suppliers Group) was formed to prevent proliferation in 1977 with nuclear test in India in 1974. INFCIRC/254/Part1 (Trigger List) as guidelines for controlling the nuclear material, reactor and related equipment, reactor nuclear material, reprocessing, enrichment, conversion, molding, heavy water production plant/equipment, technical was released in 1978, and the Export Control guidelines (INFCIRC/ 254/Part2) about Dual-use item which can be used for nuclear development was established in 1992. The two Export Control guidelines are agreements between NSG Participating Governments (PGs), so all PGs have an obligation about implementation of the agreement. In addition, NSG guidelines can be the export base of control law of the member nations including our country which joined in 1995 or matched with it. Recently, NSG is in the progress of the fundamental review of NSG guidelines established in 1978 and 1992. The terms of agreement will be reflected to the domestic legislation through the fundamental review, and it will entail the changes of classification and export license standard of export items. Thus, it was studied about export controlled items review and revise plan for establishing the clear export control guidelines by review of NSG guidelines as follows