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[en] characterization of farming systems based on resources endowment was done in five districts of north rift in 1997/1999. Multi-stage sampling technique was used to select districts, divisions and villages. The villages were randomly selected from each administrative agricultural division in 15 major agro- ecological zones. Key informants, who were mainly village elders, were the respondents. A total of 360 respondents were interviewed during the survey. The households were grouped into high, average and low resource groups based on key indicators of wealth status. These were: farm size, off-farm employment, number of livestock, use of external purchasable inputs, use and ownership of farm machinery. There were distinct similarities and differences in farm types based and major producer of agricultural products. Therefore these categories of farmers form favourable target groups for technology for perceptible impact on increased crop and livestock productivity
[en] Based on field survey data of 366 traditional households (THs) and 364 family farms (FFs) from Huang-Huai-Hai Plain, a discrete-time cloglog model for parameter estimation was constructed to reveal factors that affect the two types of farms’ duration from the awareness to the adoption of green control techniques (GCTs). Differences in the influencing factors affecting the duration of the two types of farmers were also discussed. The research results are as follows. First, the duration from awareness to adoption of GCTs is significantly shorter in FFs than that in THs. Second, a higher degree of education, risk preference, family financial status, perceived ease of use and usefulness of the technique, and extension of media and supervision of agricultural technique extension departments of local governments significantly reduce the duration from awareness to adoption of GCTs by THs and FFs, whereas a male head of household prolongs the duration. Third, the age, farm size, and number of laborers exert different impacts on the duration from awareness to adoption of GCTs by THs and FFs.
[en] The main purpose of this study was to analyze the perceived outcomes of Good Agricultural Practices (GAPs) technologies adoption in order to sustain citrus farms in Mazandaran province, Iran. Study population consisted of all citrus growers in the villages of 12 counties of Mazandaran province, which a sample of 290 orchardmen were selected through a proportional random sampling technique. A questionnaire was designed to collect data which was both valid and reliable according to expert opinion and Cronbach’s alpha coefficient respectively. The results of the factor analysis showed that “market access and safe product exports,” “consumer’ health and environment-friendly behavior,” “safe production and public demand,” and “information sharing and strengthening local associations” were the four perceived outcomes of GAPs technologies adoption in citrus farms of Iran. These factors explained 65.02% of the total variance. These four perceived outputs of GAPs support economic, environmental, and social sustainability dimensions respectively.
[en] Four main aspects of embryo technology are dealt with in this paper. The first analyses the reasons for the poor selection of recipients for embryo transfer, the second relates to inaccurate evaluation of embryos at least under tropical conditions, the third proposes alternative methods to evaluate embryos for selection and freezing, and the fourth analyses the feasibility of establishing this technique as a biotechnology approach for improving production in small community tropical farms. (author)
[en] This study explores Knowledge Brokerage (KB) aspects of an ex-post Impact Assessment (IA) for the Rural Development Programme (RDP) measure of setting up young farmers, under the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP), at the regional level in Northern Greece. The measure supports the entry of young farmers in agriculture by moving land from older to younger farmers. The aim of the study was to test a set of KB tools for improving the interaction between researchers and policy makers. Our analysis mainly focused on a suite of IA Support Modules to guide practitioners, and on a technical tool kit, a web-based contextualisation platform, to support the IA of the specific test case. Offering a structured approach towards IA, both the Support Modules and LIAISE-KIT allow framing the context, organisation, scheduling and method selection in the light of KB objectives. The evaluation of how IA Support Modules influence the Science Policy Interface (SPI), in the case of the ex-post assessment, demonstrated the high relevance of KB activities for facilitating the interaction between researchers and regional policy makers. The assessment bridges the gap between knowledge producers developing scientific output to be applied in a specific context, and knowledge users, who want clear messages regarding the policy challenges they face. Other conclusions include the need for specific guidelines and training for knowledge users, especially with regard to the use of tools. According to our findings, a consequent application of KB activities is a crucial pre-condition for successfully implementing IAs in future RDP measures.
[en] Synthetic pesticides are largely decried. A common attitude against the synthetic agrochemicals is to avoid, criticise or ban these substances. Along with chemical pesticides to defend crops from bioagressors are microorganisms, semiochemical and natural substances used as plant protection products including biocontrol agents (BCAs) and crop protection products in organic production. Nevertheless, a natural substance status does not confer or imply safety, security or absence of residues (in the context of plant protection). Although in this paper we do not consider the toxicological perspective of highly toxic chemicals with adverse effects on humans and non-target organisms sprayed on crops, we have applied ourselves to working on the safe use of synthetic agrochemicals. Thus, along with biopesticides (either BCA or others) allowed in organic farming, we show that some synthetic chemical pesticides may be used in safe manner.
Highlights• Synthetic agrochemicals are widely criticised.• Some pesticide usages are not sprayed on crops.• Some biocontrol agents are of synthetic origin.