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[en] A simplified and standardized technique of defecography is described and its role in the detection of abnormalities of anorectal function in patients with defecation disorders, wether or not in connection with 'Irritable Bower Syndroms' (IBS), is evaluated. Defecography is a radiologic physiologic method in which the function of the anorectum during actual defecation is visualized. (H.W.). 144 refs.; 35 figs.; 12 tabs
[en] Purpose: To prospectively assess the intestinal symptoms and fecal continence in patients who had undergone conformal radiotherapy (CRT) for prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: A total of 78 men who had undergone definitive CRT for prostate cancer were evaluated. The patients were assessed before, during (treatment Weeks 4 and 6), and 2, 12, and 24 months after CRT completion. The intestinal symptoms and fecal continence were evaluated with comprehensive standardized questionnaires. Results: The intestinal symptoms were mostly intermittent, with only a small minority of patients affected daily. Defecation pain, fecal urge, and rectal mucous discharge increased significantly during therapy. Defecation pain and rectal mucous discharge had returned to baseline levels within 8 weeks and 1 year after CRT, respectively. However, fecal urge remained significantly elevated for ≤1 year and then returned toward the pretreatment values. The prevalence of rectal bleeding was significantly elevated 2 years after CRT. Fecal continence deteriorated during CRT and remained impaired at 1 year after treatment. Incontinence was mostly minor, occurring less than once per week and predominantly affecting incontinence for gas. Conclusion: Intestinal symptoms and fecal incontinence increased during prostate CRT. Except for rectal bleeding, the intestinal symptoms, including fecal incontinence, returned to baseline levels within 1-2 years after CRT. Thus, the rate of long-term late radiation-related intestinal toxicity was low.
[en] As estrogens are also excreted in faeces, this fact could be used for pregnancy confirmation. Sampling of faeces offers the advantage of a non-invasive test and an easy sample collection which can be done by the farmer. In this study two extraction procedures for the radioimmunoassay of estrogens in faeces and an enzymatic method for the determination of estrogens are compared as regards their practicability. (Auth.)
[en] Highlights: • Development of a comprehensive method to detect viruses using SureSelect system. • A method by which almost the full length of the viral genome can be determined without virus isolation. • Widely available methods for comprehensive analysis of virus genomic information. We tested usefulness of a target enrichment system SureSelect, a comprehensive viral nucleic acid detection method, for rapid identification of viral pathogens in feces samples of cattle, pigs and goats. This system enriches nucleic acids of target viruses in clinical/field samples by using a library of biotinylated RNAs with sequences complementary to the target viruses. The enriched nucleic acids are amplified by PCR and subjected to next generation sequencing to identify the target viruses. In many samples, SureSelect target enrichment method increased efficiencies for detection of the viruses listed in the biotinylated RNA library. Furthermore, this method enabled us to determine nearly full-length genome sequence of porcine parainfluenza virus 1 and greatly increased Breadth, a value indicating the ratio of the mapping consensus length in the reference genome, in pig samples. Our data showed usefulness of SureSelect target enrichment system for comprehensive analysis of genomic information of various viruses in field samples.
[en] A method has been developed by which to study the sorption of Streptococcus faecium to soda-lime cover glasses. Conditions were chosen to minimize the influence on sorption of bacterial polymer production, passive sorption being studied rather than attachment mediated by metabolic activities. Sorption of S. faecium increased with increasing temperature (to 50degC), time, and cell concentration, but equilibrium apparently was not reached even after incubation for 8 hours or at a cell concentration of 3 x 1010 per ml. Sorption increased with solute molarity up to 0.1 M concentration of NaCl and KCl, indicating an effect of the electrical double layers on the apposition of cells to the glass surface. Desorption of bacteria could be obtained after multiple washings of the glasses in buffer or by the action of Tween 80, but not if sorbed bacteria were left in distilled water, various salt solutions, urea, or in suspensions of unlabelled bacteria. It was concluded that sorption occurred as a result of chemical interactions between the glass and the cell surface. Tween 80 at a concentration of 1 per cent inhibited sorption to 26 per cent of buffer controls, 2 M urea was less effective, and 1 M NaCl was without effect. It is suggested that hydrophobic interactions may be of importance in the binding of S. faecium to glass. (author)
[en] The main objective of this study was to determine how rat tapeworms affect the excretion of zinc and cadmium through rat feces. Male rats (Rattus norvegicus var. alba) were divided into four groups, and the experiment was conducted over a 6-week period. The control groups (00; 0T) were provided with a standard ST-1 rodent mixture and received 10.5 mg of Zn/week. Groups P0 and PT were fed a mixture supplemented with the hyperaccumulating plant Arabidopsis halleri at a dosage of 123 mg Zn/week and 2.46 mg Cd/week. Groups 0T and PT were infected with the rat tapeworm (Hymenolepis diminuta). Fecal samples were collected 24 h post exposure. Zinc and cadmium concentrations in rat feces were analyzed using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry. Tapeworm presence decreased the amount of metals excreted through the feces of the host throughout the entire experiment, with the exception of 1 week (control group). No statistically significant differences between zinc excretion rates in the control groups (00 and 0T) were detected at any time throughout the experiment. A statistically significant difference between zinc excretion rates (p < 0.05) in the exposed groups (P0 and PT) was detected in 2 of the 6 monitored weeks. Group PT excreted significantly less cadmium (p < 0.01) than group P0 did in three of the 6 weeks. Overall, our results indicate that tapeworms are able to influence the excretion of metals by their host. Tapeworms accumulate metals from intestinal contents. It is not clear whether tapeworms carry out this process before the host tissues absorb the metals from the intestines or the tapeworms accumulate metals excreted from the body of the host back to the intestines. Most likely, it is a combination of both phenomena.
[en] Objective: To evaluate the role of dynamic defecography in diagnosis patients with the Spastic Pelvic floor syndrome. Materials and methods: The images of defecography in 44 cases of anismus and 22 volunteers were retrospectively analyzed. Methods: The anorectal angle(ARA) at quiescent and defecation, and the difference between them was calculated. T test was used in statistical analysis. Results: 21 patients with spastic pelvic floor syndrome(SPFS) also suffered from rectocele, anterior mucosal prolapse or other disease. The ARA in patients group at quiescent, defecation and difference between them were (103.2 ± 8.62)°, (92.8 ± 7.38)° and (10.4 ± 7.9)° respectively, and those in normal control group were (117.4 ± 12.7)°, (137.1 ± 10.4)° and (19.7 ± 12.4)° respectively. There was significant difference in ARA between two groups (P < 0.01). Conclusion: Dynamic defecography can provide reliable diagnostic basis for the Spastic Pelvic Floor syndrome. (authors)