Results 1 - 10 of 6854
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[en] A novel approach using Bayesian inference has been implemented to interpret the filamentary dynamics measured by a Langmuir probe fixed to a reciprocating assembly on MAST. The model describes the system as a superposition of time-displaced filaments and a fixed background component. Each filament is parameterised in terms of a characteristic rise and fall time and maximum amplitude centred on local maxima in the measured data time-series. A distinctive feature of the approach is that no minimum threshold is set for the existence of filaments. It is observed that whereas large amplitude filaments are well characterised in terms of rise times, smaller amplitude filaments are often unconstrained by the data and are limited by the details of the prior. Based on these findings, a new definition for the plasma filaments is proposed based on the uncertainty in the filament rise times. The remaining filaments together with the constant background component forms a new time-dependent signal referred to as the computed background fluctuation signal. The characteristics of these signals (for the plasma filaments and for the background fluctuations) are reported in terms of their spatial variation as the probe moves through the SOL and into the core plasma. (paper)
[en] We demonstrate that the terahertz emission from a dc-biased filament can be regarded as a sum of an elliptically polarized terahertz source (generated by a filament without external electric field) and a linearly polarized terahertz source induced by the external electric field applied to the filament. The peak frequency and linewidth of the linearly polarized terahertz source are related to the average plasma density of the filament.
[en] A theoretical model for resonance absorption initiated by self-focusing filamentation is proposed on the base of experiments of the 2ω0 time resolved spectrum and recent experiments of 3ω0/2 filamentation, as well as slow ion emission. A number of aspects of previously obtained experimental results may well be explained
[en] Dual-frequency terahertz radiation from air-plasma filaments produced with two-color lasers in air has been demonstrated experimentally. When a focusing lens is tilted for a few degrees, it is shown that the laser filament evolves from a single one to two sub-filaments. Two independent terahertz sources emitted from the sub-filaments with different frequencies and polarizations are identified, where the frequency of terahertz waves from the trailing sub-filament is higher than that from the leading sub-filament.
[en] The multiple filamentation of terawatt femtosecond (fs) laser pulses is experimentally studied in a natural environment. A more than 30-m long plasma filament with a millimeter diameter is formed by the collimated fs laser pulse freely propagating in an open atmosphere. This study provides the first quantitative experimental data about the electron density of a long range light filament in the atmosphere. The electron density of such a filament is quantitatively detected by using an electric method, showing that it is at the 1011-cm−3 level. (paper)
[en] Recently, simultaneous emission of radially and non-radially polarized terahertz (THz) pulses during single-colour femtosecond laser filamentation has been reported. In this work, the latter radiation has been specifically investigated, instead of the well-studied THz radial polarization. Briefly, cut-back measurements have verified that the ellipticity of the generated THz pulse with non-radial polarization decreased (became more linearly polarized) with the increasing filament length. The underlying mechanism responsible for this phenomenon is the existence of a propagation effect of THz wave along the filament plasma channel. In this case, the resulted off-axis propagation of THz wave inside the plasma column played a dominant role on the generated non-radial THz polarization, rather than the expected on-axis THz birefringence induced by the high laser intensity. This discovery will greatly renew the understanding of THz emission from plasma sources. (paper)
[en] At gas pressures >1 kPa, tubular rare-gas electrical discharges can contract radially yielding a single axially centred bright filament. When sustaining the discharge with microwave fields of a high enough frequency, instead of a single filament, two or more smaller-diameter and off-centre plasma filaments can be formed. When a specific percentage (<1%) of a rare gas having a lower ionization potential is added to a pure rare-gas atmospheric-pressure discharge, the single-filament contracted discharge fully expands radially or the initially multi-filament discharge becomes homogeneous. Experimental characteristics of this phenomenon and the required operating conditions are reported here for the first time. (fast track communication)
[en] The results of high-resolution processing using the multilevel dynamical contrasting method of earlier experiments on linear Z-pinches are presented which illustrate formation of a dynamical percolating network woven by long-living filaments of electric current. A qualitative approach is outlined which treats long-living filaments as a classical plasma formation governed by the long-range quantum bonds provided, at the micro-scopical level, by nanotubes of elements of optimal valence. The self-similarity of structuring in laboratory and cosmic plasmas is shown, and examples are found of nanotube-like and/or fullerene-like structures of cosmic length scales. (author)
[en] Microwave guiding along single plasma filament generated through the propagation of femtosecond (fs) laser pulses in air has been demonstrated over a distance of about 6.5 cm, corresponding to a microwave signal intensity enhancement of more than 3-fold over free space propagation. The current propagation distance along the fs laser filament is in agreement with the calculations and limited by the relatively high resistance of the single plasma filament. Using a single fs laser filament to channel microwave radiation considerably alleviate requirements to the power of fs laser pulses compared to the case of the circular filaments waveguide. In addition, it can be used as a simple and non-intrusive method to obtain the basic parameters of laser-generated plasma filament.
[en] High-resolution spectropolarimetric observations of three sunspots taken with Hinode demonstrate the existence of supersonic downflows at or close to the umbra-penumbra boundary which have not been reported before. These downflows are confined to large patches, usually encompassing bright penumbral filaments, and have lifetimes of more than 14 hr. The presence of strong downflows in the center-side penumbra near the umbra rules out an association with the Evershed flow. Chromospheric filtergrams acquired close to the time of the spectropolarimetric measurements show large, strong, and long-lived brightenings in the neighborhood of the downflows. The photospheric intensity also exhibits persistent brightenings comparable to the quiet Sun. Interestingly, the orientation of the penumbral filaments at the site of the downflows is similar to that resulting from the reconnection process described by Ryutova et al. The existence of such downflows in the inner penumbra represents a challenge for numerical models of sunspots because they have to explain them in terms of physical processes likely affecting the chromosphere.