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[en] The U.S. Food and Drug Administration is in the process of considering radiation technology as a safe process for treatment of any food at doses less than 1.0kGy, while higher doses of up to 35kGy are allowed for treatment of a wide variety of dried spices. However, radiation preservation of fresh fish and dozen/packaged fish products requires selections of doses ranging from 1.0kGy up to 10kGy to achieve the intended effect. The treatment needs to be accompanied by good handling and manufacturing practices. Studies have showed that irradiated food is wholesome while the process itself possesses economic and health benefits. (author)
[en] Considerable data has been accumulated over the years (some published others archived), concerning levels of heavy metals, including mercury, in fishery products to which the Lebanese population is exposed to. This study is an attempt in compiling additional new data particularly from canned tuna, using better analytical techniques and quality control and assurance in view of proposing an interim screening standard for total mercury levels, to the relevant Lebanese authorities. It is proposed to consider a maximum permissible level of 0.5 ppm total mercury in fish and fishery products, imported or of local origin. (author)
[en] In this study various poultry and fish feed samples were initially analyzed for presence of aflatoxin. All the samples were found contaminated with aflatoxin B I only. Contaminated samples were treated with different organic and inorganic chemicals to detoxify aflatoxin B 1 in poultry and fish feed samples. The maximum reduction in the aflatoxin Bl concentration was observed with 0.5% HCI as 14.20 ppb to 2.09 ppb (86.50%) in the poultry and 69.26 ppb to 10.46 ppb (84.89%) in fish feed samples.
[en] In our laboratory, we had studied disinfection of animal feeds by radiation, and these results contributed to commercial use of sterilisation on laboratory animal diets. We also studied radiation-disinfection of putrefactive moulds on corn and milo. On the basis of these studies, we investigated radiation disinfection of farm animal feeds. In this paper we present the distribution of microorganisms in mixed feeds and fish meals on the market, and effect of radiation-inactivation of microorganisms. (author)
[en] A brief evaluation is presented of the economic benefit and return of investments from a radicidation unit and storehouse for 25,000 tons of imported fish meal which accounts for 50% of current imports. Radicidation would be carried out with a dose of 4 kJ/kg using an electron accelerator at a cost of 18 Czechoslovak crowns per ton. The calculations made proved that capital return would be 1.5 years and economic benefit 6.12 crowns per one crown of expenditure. (J.P.)
[en] The influence of irradiation on the extension of shelf-life of boiled Chub mackerel stored at room temperature (25-300C) was investigated. It was found that boiled Chub mackerel irradiated at 0.1, 0.2, or 0.3 Mrad could be kept with good organoleptic properties at room temperature for 5, 8, and 11 days respectively; while the unirradiated sample could be kept for only 2 days. Boiled Chub mackerel used in this study was found to be heavily contaminated with microorganisms. Irradiation at doses mentioned caused reduction of more than 99% of bacteria. Bacillus and Acinetobacter were found to predominate in the irradiated boiled mackerel. The predominant flora in unirradiated boiled mackerel included Micrococcus, Staphylococcus, Bacillus, Acinetobacter, and Proteus. E. coli was always detected in unirradiated samples and was occasionally detected only in samples irradiated at 0.1 Mrad. Trimethylamine nitrogen (TMA-N) content, total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N) content, and total bacterial count (TBC) were used as indices of decomposition of both irradiated and unirradiated samples. TMA-N and TBC were found to be good indices of quality of only unirradiated boiled Chub mackerel, whereas TVB-N was found to be a good index of quality of both irradiated and unirradiated samples
[en] Fish is one of the sources of essential nutrients viz proteins, vitamins, minerals and long-chain ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids known to be associated with numerous health benefits. Soup is one of the oldest foods, prepared by combining ingredients such as vegetables green leaves with juice, water or any other liquid and differ in nutrient content from beverages, the other principal source of energy-yielding dietary fluids. Traditionally, soups are very popular and relished everywhere as appetizer. Vegetables and chicken based soups are readily available in market, whereas fish-based soups are scarce. A novel, instant fish soup powder was developed from Seer fish (Scomberomorus lineolatus) along with other ingredients like fresh vegetables, spices etc. The instant fish soup powder was packed in multilayer flexible pouches and treated with gamma radiation (2 kGy) in ice. The control and irradiated samples were periodically analysed and found to be acceptable for 1 and 1½ year respectively by microbiological, biochemical and organoleptic analysis at ambient temperature. (author)
[en] Two experiments were done,the first for ten week,in which fish meal (FM) were used instead of animal protein (AP). A total of (12) group of young common carps Cyprinus carpio L.(25.98±0.27 gm.) were fed on four experimental diets. The first three diets were with 4%, 8% and 12% of (FM) (total replacement),specific growth rate, final fish weight and protein efficiency ratio. Whereas, in the second experiment, a total of (15) groups of C.carpio (36,44±0.23 gm)were fed on five experimental diets in which (FM) were used by 12% and 15% instead of (AP) as well as by 10% and 15% instead of Soyabean meal . The fifth diets was with 0% (F M). Statistical analysis (CRD and Dun cans test ) showed no significant differences (P>0.05) between the experimental diet according to food conversion ratio. According to these results dried irradiated Khishni can be used as a (FM). and to be a good replacer for all (AP) and 50% of Soyabean (c.p. 44%) in the diet of common carp.) (author)
[en] Financial analysis revealed average 30% national loss of agri-produce measures Rs.1,70,000 crores (USD 34 billion) every year. It is anticipated, one time investment of Rs. 15,625 crores (USD 3.1 billion) for irradiation and allied infrastructure can save one-tenth of the total loss i.e. Rs. 17,000 crores (USD 3.4 billion) every year. Radiation Technology can effectively complement the national efforts towards enhanced agricultural production by preventing losses of commodities during storage and adding value in terms of quality. Efforts by private players for customization of radiation processing plants are also discussed in the paper. (author)
[en] Lake and coastal Tunisian areas are rich biodiversity habitats, although little information is available about the distribution of food sources for the inhabitant species. In this study, a fatty acid analysis was used to study the trophic ecology of Venerupis decussatac ommunities from 10 sites located along the Tunisian Coast. The richest population in fatty acids was found in S4 followed by S5 and S8, while that of S1, S3 and S10 were the least rich. Results from multivariate analysis confirmed the ecological position of the studied population based on their fatty acid composition. Our results divided the ten studied populations into three similar groups according to their ecological and geographical positions in relation to environmental parameters and food and trophic links. A principal component analysis revealed that diatoms and dinoflagellates were the predominate diets in all the sampling stations. Bacteria and urban discharge dominated the dietary source of clams from S10 and S9. Zooplankton were the preferred diet of V. decussata harvested from the two S2 and S3 lakes; although green algae, phytoplankton and detritus were absent from the dietary source of the two previous populations. Despite spatial differences, clams from the north and the south could be easily distinguished from each other, which indicates the utility of this method in the dietary analysis of different food chain links. This study proves that geographic, ecologic and abiotic factors as well as their mutual interaction should be properly investigated in studies focusing on the trophic chains of aquatic ecosystems.
[es]Los lagos y las zonas costeras de Túnez son ricos en hábitats de biodiversidad. Sin embargo, hay poca información disponible sobre la distribución de las fuentes de alimentos para las especies residentes. En este trabajo se utilizó el análisis de ácidos grasos para estudiar la ecología trófica de las comunidades de Venerupis decussata de 10 localizaciones a lo largo de las costas tunecinas. La población más rica en ácidos grasos se encontró en S4 seguida de S5 y S8, mientras que la de S1, S3 y S10 fueron las menos ricas. Los resultados del análisis multivariante confirmaron la posición ecológica de la población estudiada en función de su composición de ácidos grasos. Nuestros resultados dividieron las diez poblaciones estudiadas en tres grupos similares según sus posiciones ecológicas y geográficas en relación con los parámetros ambientales y con los enlaces tróficos y alimentarios. El análisis de los componentes principales reveló que las dietas predominantes eran las diatomeas y los dinoflagelados en todas las estaciones de muestreo. Mientras que, las bacterias y la descarga urbana dominaron la fuente dietética de almejas de S10 y S9. Sin embargo, el zooplancton fue la dieta preferida de V. decussata cosechada de los dos lagos S2 y S3; las algas verdes, el fitoplancton y los detritos estaban ausentes en la fuente dietética de las dos poblaciones anteriores. A pesar de las diferencias espaciales, las almejas del norte y del sur se pueden distinguir fácilmente entre sí, lo que indica la utilidad de este método en el análisis dietético de los diferentes enlaces de la cadena alimentaria. Este estudio demuestra que los factores geográficos, ecológicos y abióticos, así como su interacción mutua deben investigarse adecuadamente en estudios centrados en las cadenas tróficas de los ecosistemas acuáticos.