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[en] Poorly differentiated thyroid carcinomas (PDTC) are a subgroup of thyroid cancers with aggressive behavior and worse prognosis compared to the well DTC. Limited diagnostic tools and therapeutic options exist for such cases, and the appropriate management algorithm continues to evolve in this subgroup. They pose difficulty in clinical management due to their behavioral heterogeneity and increased occurrence of aggressive clinical behavior underlining the need for management individualization. In the present communication, a case series of three clinically challenging cases of PDTC (with low serum thyroglobulin (Tg) and iodine nonavidity) are presented with a discourse on their management intrigues, unresolved issues and the requirement of a distinctive management protocol. A small fraction of PDTCs may show low serum Tg values, with the questionable significance of its role for the assessment and monitoring of disease burden in this group of patients. Given uncommon occurrence, limited and variable literature data, management guidelines for “nonsecretor” PDTC needs to be more clearly defined based on scientific evidence. The present clinical case series of PDTC with low serum thyroglobulin in the context of noniodine concentrating metastatic disease and aggressive clinical course (”nonsecretor” status) was noteworthy from this viewpoint.
[en] Primitive neuroectodermal tumor is a malignant small round cell tumor of presumed neural crest origin, usually affecting the bony structures of the nasal cavity and its clinical and radiological features may be confused with those of infection and malignancy. I report a case with primitive neuroectodermal tumor of the nasal cavity showing increased tracer uptake on 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography-computed tomography mimicking an another primary malignancy in a 17-year-old boy.
[en] Multiple colorectal adenomas (MCRAs) syndrome is a genetic syndrome characterized by multiple colorectal polyps. Patients usually present late in late fourth or fifth decade of life. They have a high risk for developing malignancy. We here present such case of a 61-year-old man with MCRAs who developed malignant degeneration of multiple colorectal polyps, which was demonstrated on 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography–computed tomography.
[en] The extent and intensity of 18F FDG uptake in prostate cancer patients are known to be variable, and the clinical significance of focal 18F fluorodeoxyglucose (18F FDG) uptake that is incidentally found on positron emission tomography (PET) has not been established. We investigated the clinical significance of incidental focal prostate uptake of 18F FDG on PET/computed tomography (CT) and analyzed differential findings on PET/CT Between malignant and benign uptake. A total of 14,854 whole body 18F FDG PET/CT scans (4,806 that were conducted during cancer screening and 10,048 that were conducted to evaluate suspected of alleged cancer outside of the prostate) were retrospectively reviewed to determine the presence, location, multiplicity reviewed to determine the presence, location, multiplicity and maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) of focal prostate uptake and combined calcification. The final diagnosis determined by serum prostate specific antigen (PSA) level and biopsy was compared with PET findings. Incidental focal prostate uptake was observed in 148 of 14,854 scans (1.0%). Sixty seven of these 148 subjects who had diagnostic confirmation were selected for further analysis. Prostate cancer was diagnosed in nine of 67 subjects (13.4%). The remaining 58 subjects had no malignancy in the prostate based on normal serum PSA level (n=53), or elevated serum PSA level with a negative biopsy result (n=5). While 84.6% (11/13) of malignant uptake was peripherally located in the prostate glands, 60.2% (50/83) of benign uptake was centrally located (p<0.05). The positive predictive value of peripheral focal uptake for malignancy was 25%. The SUVmax, multiplicity and combined calcification were not significantly different between the two groups. Although incidental focal 18F FDG uptake un the prostate is not common, the incidence of cancer with focal uptake is not low. Therefore, these findings deserve further evaluation. The location of the focal prostate uptake may help with the selection of high risk prostate cancer patients.
[en] Both mutant p53 and chemoresistance are poor prognostic factors in cancer. Many studies have examined the influence of these factors on fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) incorporation. Whilst mutant p53 is associated with increased FDG incorporation, chemoresistance, especially when associated with P-glycoprotein, is associated with decreased FDG incorporation.
[en] Adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) of sinonasal cavity is not the frequent entity. It is characterized by indolent growth and clinical course and high rate of recurrences, perineural spread, and late metastases. We represent a patient with rare renal metastasis from sinonasal ACC in pretreatment fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography-computed tomography scan, and pathological confirmation has been obtained from both the primary and metastatic sites. Metastatic lesion was asymptomatic and found during the early course of disease. As per our knowledge, this is the second case report of sinonasal ACC with renal metastasis and the first case of metastatic ACC in patient prior receiving any type treatment.
[en] Disseminated cryptococcosis without pulmonary involvement is a very rare phenomenon. Patterns of organ involvement in cryptococcosis resemble various other infective conditions as well as malignant conditions on fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography–computed tomography. We present a case of a 43-year-old male patient who had disseminated cryptococcosis. The rarity of the case being noninvolvement of lungs and meninges and resembling more like lymphoma due to the diffuse involvement of the lymph nodes on both sides of the diaphragm.
[en] Background: Molecular subtypes of breast cancer have been proposed since 2012. The correlation between various baseline [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose ([18F]FDG) uptake parameters, including total lesion glycolysis (TLG), and molecular subtypes of primary breast cancer lesions in patients with invasive ductal cancer will be investigated. METHODS: Staging [18F]FDG PET/CT for breast invasive ductal carcinoma were retrospectively evaluated. Breast lesions were examined for estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) and proliferation index (Ki-67). Breast tumors were classified into five molecular subtypes: Luminal A, Luminal B-HER2(-), Luminal B-HER2(+), HER2(+) and Basal or Triple Negative cancers. The correlations between tumor characteristics and PET semiquantitative data of primary breast lesion (SUVmean, SUVmax, Mean tumor volume (MTV), TLG) were assessed. Specific Breast Uptake Ratio (SBUR) is used as a new quantification method of breast uptake to correct for physiological background activity. RESULTS: Fifty-eight patients were included. TLG was significantly higher in triple negative group when compared with luminal A (P<0.01). Significantly higher uptake was found in triple negative lesions when compared with luminal B-HER2(-) and luminal B-HER2(+) categories using SUVmax, SUVmean and TLG (all P<0.05). Conversely, no statistically significant difference for [18F]FDG uptake was observed between all other molecular subtypes. No value of SBUR in terms of correlation with histopathological parameters was demonstrated. CONCLUSIONS: TLG was superior to SUVmax and SUVmean in differentiating between triple negative breast cancer lesions and all other molecular subtypes. SBUR was not different statistically between various molecular subtypes