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[en] A superconductor flywheel energy storage system (SFES) is an electro-mechanical battery which transforms electrical energy into mechanical energy for storage, and vice versa. The 35 kWh class SFES is composed of a main frame, superconductor bearings, electro-magnetic dampers, a motor/generator, and a composite flywheel. The energy storing capacity of the SFES can be limited by the operational speed range of the system. The operational speed range is limited by many factors, especially the resonant frequency of the main frame and flywheel. In this study, a steel frame has been designed and constructed for a 35 kWh class SFES. All the main parts, their housings, and the flywheel are aligned and assembled on to the main frame. While in operation, the flywheel excites the main frame, as well as all the parts assembled to it, causing the system to vibrate at the rotating speed. If the main frame is excited at its resonant frequency, the system will resonate, which may lead to unstable levitation at the superconductor bearings and electro-magnetic dampers. The main frame for the 35 kWh class SFES has been designed and constructed to improve stiffness for the stable operation of the system within the operational speed range.
[en] We have been developing a flywheel energy storage system (FESS) with 36 MJ energy capacity for a railway system with superconducting magnetic bearings (SMBs). We prepared two kinds of models using superconducting coils and bulk superconductors (SCs). One model demonstrated SMB load capacity of 20 kN and the other model proved non-contact stable levitation and non-contact rotation with SMBs. Combining these results, the feasibility of a 36 MJ energy capacity FESS with SMBs completely inside a cryostat has been confirmed. In this paper, we report the levitation properties of SMBs in these models.
[en] A flywheel energy storage system (FESS) stores electrical power as kinetic energy of a rotating flywheel rotor. Since the storage energy of the FESS is proportional to the weight of the rotor and the square of the rotating speed, the heavy weight and high speed rotor leads a FESS to a high power and a high capacity. However a conventional FESS limits in both the rotor weight and the rotating speed because of using mechanical bearings. A superconducting FESS (SFESS) utilizes a superconducting magnetic bearing (SMB) to levitate and rotate the flywheel rotor that has ton class weight and high speed rotation without mechanical contact. As the SFESS with 300 kW demonstrated at Mt. Komekura in Yamanashi prefecture, the SMB in the SFESS levitated the 4-ton rotor. The SMB consisted of a high temperature superconducting magnet (HTS magnet) and a HTS bulk, and utilized a repulsive force between the HTS magnet and the HTS bulk. The demonstration of the SFESS has been carried out successfully at Mt. Komekura. Now the next step development was started to aim a MW-class SFESS. The MW-class SFESS needs the SMB levitated and withstood a 10 ton-class load. This paper describes a design of the 10 ton-class SMB and the result of the load test of the developed SMB (paper)
[en] Highlights: •We have proposed superconducting (SC) magnetic bearings using SC coil and bulks. •We manufactured a small scale test device based on our concept. •The device levitated a rotor without mechanical contact. •The rotor was rotated contactless over 2000 rpm. •We have demonstrated our SC magnetic bearing feasibility using the device. -- Abstract: We have been developing superconducting magnetic bearing for flywheel energy storage system to be applied to the railway system. The bearing consists of a superconducting coil as a stator and bulk superconductors as a rotor. A flywheel disk connected to the bulk superconductors is suspended contactless by superconducting magnetic bearings (SMBs). We have manufactured a small scale device equipped with the SMB. The flywheel was rotated contactless over 2000 rpm which was a frequency between its rigid body mode and elastic mode. The feasibility of this SMB structure was demonstrated
[en] An overview summary of recent Boeing work on high-temperature superconducting (HTS) bearings is presented. A design is presented for a small flywheel energy storage system that is deployable in a field installation. The flywheel is suspended by a HTS bearing whose stator is conduction cooled by connection to a cryocooler. At full speed, the flywheel has 5 kW h of kinetic energy, and it can deliver 3 kW of three-phase 208 V power to an electrical load. The entire system, which includes a containment structure, is compatible with transportation by forklift or crane. Laboratory measurements of the bearing loss are combined with the parasitic loads to estimate the efficiency of the system. Improvements in structural composites are expected to enable the operation of flywheels with very high rim velocities. Small versions of such flywheels will be capable of very high rotational rates and will likely require the low loss inherent in HTS bearings to achieve these speeds. We present results of experiments with small-diameter rotors that use HTS bearings for levitation and rotate in vacuum at kHz rates. Bearing losses are presented as a function of rotor speed.
[en] In this paper an AC-excited variable speed generator with flywheel is proposed as a power supply for nuclear fusion experimental facility. In this generator, the flywheel, the speed of which varies depending on energy charging/discharging is connected to a power line operated at a certain fixed frequency by means of a synchronous motor generator that is excited by a variable frequency converter, realizing energy charging and discharging. Compared to a conventional generator with flywheel, the following advantages are offered: The necessary converter capacity is small; Parallel operation of a number of generators can be accomplished simply, making it be supplied through phase-modified operation of the flywheel generator, making it easier to obtain large power and energy; Reactive power can be supplied through phase-modified operation of generator, making it possible to reduce in number or omit entirely other static power factor compensators; Filter capacity can be reduced because the flywheel generator absorbs the harmonics generated by the load converter
[en] A superconductor flywheel energy storage system (SFES) is an electro-mechanical battery which transforms electrical energy into mechanical energy for storage, and vice versa. A 35 kWh class SFES module was designed and constructed as part of a 100kWh/1MW class SFES composed of three 35 kWh class SFES modules. The 35 kWh class SFES is composed of a main frame, superconductor bearings, a composite flywheel, a motor/generator, electro-magnetic bearings, and a permanent magnet bearing. The high energy density composite flywheel is levitated by the permanent magnet bearing and superconductor bearings, while being spun by the motor/generator, and the electro-magnetic bearings are activated while passing through the critical speeds. Each of the main components was designed to provide maximum performance within a space-limited compact frame. The 35 kWh class SFES is designed to store 35 kWh, with a 350 kW charge/discharge capacity, in the 8,000 - 12,000 rpm operational speed range.
[en] A brief overview of different steel disc-type flywheels is presented. It contents the analysis of relationship between stress-state and kinetic energy of rotating body, comparison of the main characteristics of flywheels and description of their optimization procedures. It is shown that pro files of the discs calculated on a basis of plane stress-state assumption may be considered only as a starting point for its further improvement using 3-D approach. The aim of the review is to provide a designer for a insight into problem of shaping of steel flywheels. (Author) 19 refs
[en] A superconductor flywheel energy storage system (SFES) is an electro-mechanical battery which transforms electrical energy into mechanical energy for storage, and vice versa. A 10 kWh class flywheel energy storage system (FESS) has been developed to evaluate the feasibility of a 35 kWh class SFES with a flywheel Ip/If ratio larger than 1. The 10 kWh class FESS is composed of a main frame, a composite flywheel, active magnetic dampers (AMDs), a permanent magnet bearing, and a motor/generator. The flywheel of the FESS rotates at a very high speed to store energy, while being levitated by a permanent magnetic bearing and a pair of thrust AMDs. The 10 kWh class flywheel is mainly composed of a composite rotor assembly, where most of the energy is stored, two radial and two thrust AMD rotors, which dissipate vibration at critical speeds, a permanent magnet rotor, which supports most of the flywheel weight, a motor rotor, which spins the flywheel, and a central hollow shaft, where the parts are assembled and aligned to. The stators of each of the main components are assembled on to housings, which are assembled and aligned to the main frame. Many factors have been considered while designing each part of the flywheel, stator and frame. In this study, a 10 kWh class flywheel energy storage system has been designed and constructed for test operation.
[en] We have constructed a bearing system for an energy storage flywheel. This bearing system uses a combination of permanent magnets and superconductors in an arrangement commonly termed as an Evershed bearing. In an Evershed system there are in fact two bearings which act in concert. In our system we have one bearing constructed entirely out of permanent magnets acting in attraction. This system bears the weight of the flywheel (43.6 kg) but would not, on its own, be stable. Stability is provided by a superconducting bearing which is formed by the interaction between the magnetic field of a permanent magnet sited on the rotor and superconductors on the stator. This overall arrangement is stable over a range of levitation heights and has been tested at rotation speeds of up to around 12 Hz (the maximum speed is dictated by the drive system not the bearing system). There is a sharp resonance peaking at between 2 and 3 Hz and spin down tests indicate that the equivalent coefficient of friction is of the order of 10-5. The rate of change of velocity is, however, not constant so the drag is clearly not solely frictional. The position of the resonance is dictated by the stiffness of the bearing relative to the mass of the flywheel but the amplitude of the resonance is dictated by the variation in magnitude of the magnetic field of the permanent magnets. Large magnets are (at present) fabricated in sections and this leads to a highly inhomogeneous field. The field has been smoothed by using a combination of iron which acts passively and copper which provides magnetic shielding due to the generation of eddy currents and therefore acts as an 'active' component. Calculations based on the spin down tests indicate that the resultant variation in field is of the order of 3% and measurements are being carried out to confirm this. (author)