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[en] Cooperatives are especially important in current agri-food markets. These companies have responded to the current demand requirements with greater market orientation strategies to attract and satisfy customers. To do so, cooperatives have adopted different collaboration alternatives. In Spain, the most common alliance between cooperatives is materialised in second-level cooperatives, which are cooperatives integrated by at least two first-level cooperatives. The aim of this study was to analyse the interaction effects between first- and second level agri-food cooperatives on their productive growth and its components. To get this purpose, a Cobb-Douglas specification with spatial econometrics techniques was applied to evaluate this relationship. We included a spatial connectivity matrix to establish the interconnection among cooperatives of first- and second-level. Our results show a positive interaction effect highlighting the importance of these alliances on the productivity growth in the agri-food sector. The scarce amount of empirical papers explaining how second-level cooperatives influence the performance of first-level cooperatives shows the relevance of our study.
[en] A simple model is presented for the presage of the thermal conductivities of frozen foods that combines different authors' proposals. For varied materials on those that there is available information of the modification of this property with the temperature in frozen systems, the comparison of the dear and empiric values is made to evaluate these predictions
[en] The most beneficial omega-3 PUFAs to human health, EPA and DHA fatty acids, are typically present in fish products, but extraneous to meat. Therefore, Cinta Senese pork burgers were added with microencapsulated (M) and bulk fish oil (F) and subjected to three storage conditions: no storage (T0), chilled (T5) and frozen storage (T30). The physico-chemical and sensory attributes of raw and cooked burgers were investigated. After storage and cooking, EPA and DHA were better preserved in M burgers than in F samples, which showed the highest TBAR values at T0 and T5, while M samples presented scores similar to the control. Panelists observed differences mainly in greasy appearance, odor intensity and cooked meat odor and flavor. The M group showed the best scores at T5 with respect to the control and F burgers. So, fish oil microencapsulation was an effective method to prevent EPA and DHA oxidation while respecting burger quality characteristics.
[es]EPA y DHA son los ácidos grasos poliinsaturados omega 3 más beneficiosos para la salud humana, se presentan típicamente en el pescado, y no se encuentran en carnes. Por ello, se elaboraron hamburguesas de cerdo de la especie “Cinta Senese” añadiendo aceite de pescado (F), microcápsulas que contenían aceite de pescado (M) o sólo a base de carne (control (C)) y se mantuvieron bajo las siguientes condiciones de almacenamiento: sin almacenaje (T0), en refrigeración (T5) y congelación (T30). Se estudiaron los atributos sensoriales y físico-químicos de las hamburguesas crudas y cocinadas. En cuanto al almacenamiento y el cocinado, las hamburguesas con microcápsulas preservaron mejor los EPA y DHA que las muestras con aceite de pescado, las cuales presentaron los valores más altos de TBARs en las muestras T0 y T5, mientras que las M mantuvieron unos resultados similares a las de tipo control. En los resultados de la cata realizada se observaron, entre los tratamientos realizados y respecto a las distintas condiciones de almacenamiento, diferencias en la apariencia grasienta, olor y flavor a carne cocida e intensidad de olor. En las hamburguesas M se obtuvieron las mejores puntuaciones frente a las encontradas en F y C en el tipo T5. Por tanto, la microencapsulación de aceite de pescado se verificó como un método efectivo para prevenir la oxidación de EPA y DHA respetando la calidad y características de las hamburguesas.
[en] This work aimed to determine the major and minor compounds of avocado oils. Mono-varietal oils from the Bacon, Fuerte, Hass, and Pinkerton cultivars were obtained by means of an Abencor® system, while commercial oils from Brazil, Chile, Ecuador and New Zealand were purchased locally. The content of triacylglycerols, fatty acids, aliphatic and terpenic alcohols, desmethyl- methyl- and dimethyl-sterols, squalene and tocopherols were determined. The main triacylglycerols were those with ECN48. In addition, the oleic, palmitic and linoleic acids prevailed. Desmethyl-sterols were the principal minor compounds. Low amounts of aliphatic and terpenic alcohols were also found. Squalene concentrations were higher in Bacon, Fuerte and Pinkerton oils than in the other oils. The most abundant tocopherol was α-tocopherol. Partial least squares discriminant analysis made it possible to express the differences among the samples. To summarize, this work brings a different approach to the complete characterization of avocado oil.
[es]El objetivo de este trabajo ha sido la determinación los componentes mayoritarios y minoritarios del aceite de aguacate. Los aceites monovarietales de las variedades Bacon, Fuerte, Hass y Pinkerton se obtuvieron mediante un sistema Abencor®, mientras que los aceites comerciales de Brasil, Chile, Ecuador y Nueva Zelanda se compraron en la localidad. Se determinó el contenido de triacilgliceroles, ácidos grasos, alcoholes alifáticos y terpénicos, desmetilmetil, metil y dimetil esteroles, escualeno y tocoferoles. Los principales triacilgliceroles fueron aquellos con ECN48. Además, prevalecieron los ácidos grasos oleico, palmítico y linoleico. Los desmetil esteroles fueron los compuestos minoritarios principales. También se encontraron bajas cantidades de alcoholes alifáticos y terpénicos. Las concentraciones de escualeno fueron más altas en los aceites de las variedades Bacon, Fuerte y Pinkerton que en las otras variedades. El tocoferol más abundante fue el α-tocoferol. El análisis discriminante de mínimos cuadrados permitió expresar las diferencias entre las muestras. En resumen, este trabajo aporta un enfoque diferente a la caracterización completa del aceite de aguacate.
[en] Wine is a traditional beverage with a saturated market, in which consumers are open to innovation. In this context, an innovative experience was launched to create a new natural sparkling red wine with a view to diversifying production and studying its acceptance. This paper uses an original acceptance model for new foods called the Cognitive-Affective-Normative (CAN) model. The model was tested on a sample of 500 Spanish consumers in a real-world test context and explains 64.1% of the intention to consume the new wine. The results showed the importance of the cognitive factor in consumer intention. In particular, sensory and price benefits were found to be the key criteria explaining the intention to consume (41.34%). The results also confirmed the usefulness of expanding the factors that determine new food acceptance to include the emotional and normative dimensions of consumer behaviour. The social norm (18.54%) and affective factors (4.2%) contributed to the explanation of the underlying reasons influencing consumers’ assessments of the product. It is proposed that efforts focus on new visual, olfactory and taste-related sensations with a view to producing an appetising product that offers good value for money. Research and development institutes should innovate towards products that highlight these sensations. Therefore, attention should be drawn to the importance of acting on potential consumers’ reference groups and membership groups, with a view to involving them in recommending the product. Managers should focus on measuring and influencing social opinion, working on marketing communication to achieve acceptance.
[en] Cold plasma or Non-thermal plasma (NTP) is an emerging technology for the improvement of food safety. Cold plasma is a neutral ionized gas that comprises highly reactive species including positive ions, negative ions, free radicals, electrons, excited or non-excited molecules and photons at or near room temperature. It has been employed in the food industry for inactivation of microorganisms on the surface of fresh and processed foods with minimal heat induced damage of food products. Potential applications include pasteurization of liquid food products, disinfection of plant processing equipment, and packaging material. Several different cold plasma technologies have been developed, each with different advantages and disadvantages. NTP can be generated at atmospheric pressure that makes it more applicable. However, for the reason that there are few studies on the application of this technology in real food systems, the effects of non-thermal plasma on nutritional and chemical properties of food is not known well. Furthermore, the studies which explore the safety and cost aspects of this technology could help it become widespread in food industry. (author)
[en] Spectrophotometric analysers of food, being instruments for determination of the composition of food products and ingredients, are today of growing importance for food industry, as well as for food distributors and consumers. Their metrological performance significantly depends of the numerical performance of available means for spectrophotometric data processing; in particular – the means for calibration of analysers. In this paper, a new algorithm for this purpose is proposed, viz. the algorithm using principal components analysis (PCA). It is almost as efficient as PLS-based algorithms of calibration, but much simpler
[en] A more open and competitive dairy market has encouraged certain dairy farms to adopt value-adding strategies in order to achieve a higher profitability, which may be important for farms’ survival. This paper investigated the role of some product characteristics in the profitability of value-added products in these farms. For this purpose, we used a unique database of 265 different products commercialized by 49 Spanish dairy farms that offers information on nine attributes of each product. Using hedonic models as a baseline, we examined the influence of these attributes on the margin per liter (ML) of the products. The results of the regression indicated that cheese and yogurt generated 0.688 and 1.518 € more of margin per liter than liquid milk. Similarly, we found a set of attributes that have a positive influence on ML, including possession of a certificate of protected designation of origin (PDO), the milk-type composition (proportion of sheep milk), a longer expiration period, and involvement in direct marketing strategies (DMS). However, other recognized attributes such as organic labeling, maturation period, size of the sales unit and returnable packaging did not have a significant influence on ML. Our findings also showed that firms producing more elaborated products as cheese and yogurt need a lower percentage of their production to cover the fixed costs associated to transformation and commercialization. Overall, our results revealed that the elaboration of value-added dairy products improves the profitability of dairy farms.
[en] This article describes the actual technological task of the food industry. The problem of the extraction of fat and protein from the bone mass can be solved by different methods. The work offers one of the more effective modes. Results are presented as diagrams. (author)