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[en] The main purpose of this research is to explore the effects of technological factors on energy intensity, including indigenous research and development (R&D) activity, technology spillovers through openness in the form of foreign direct investment, export, and import in one united framework. By scrutinising panel data of China's 30 provinces from 2000 to 2013, this article first uses fixed effects and feasible generalised least squares to investigate the effects of these technological factors on energy intensity by taking both economic structure and energy price as control variables. The results show that indigenous R&D plays a crucial and dominant role in the declining energy intensity among the four technological factors. In addition, technology spillovers coming from the openness of foreign direct investment and import decrease energy intensity except for the export. However, further estimation with the panel threshold model confirms that the effects of technology spillovers on energy intensity depend on the levels of local inputs of R&D expenditure intensity and the full-time equivalent of R&D personnel, allowing us to formulate different policies and measures aimed at encouraging more efficient use of energy that takes into full consideration the characteristics and situations of the technology spillovers. - Highlights: • We analyse the effects of different technological factors on energy intensity in China. • The technology spillovers coming from the openness decrease energy intensity except for the export. • Indigenous R&D hampers the export's spillover effect on energy intensity. • Full-time equivalent of R&D personnel promotes the spillover effect on energy intensity.
[en] This article deals with the nexus between energy policymaking and ideology. The article builds and expands upon a theoretical social constructivist analytical strategy, or framework, put forth for the purposes of conducting energy policy analysis. It then addresses criticism that this strategy constitutes “postmodern mush” that has no place in energy analysis before concluding with a review of why social constructivism has a significant role to play in building consensus and enhancing understanding between competing energy policy perspectives. The main contribution made by this paper stems from application of this ontological construct to the analysis of policies targeting wicked energy problems. The study cuts to the core about how energy problems are defined, interpreted, communicated, planned for, and potentially implemented via policy. Put another way, our study offers a timely critique or a call for reconceptualizing the process and practice of energy policy itself. - Highlights: • A social constructivist analytical strategy is needed in energy policy analysis. • Social constructivism has a significant role to play in building consensus. • It can also enhance understanding between competing energy policy perspectives.
[en] The integration of climate change adaptation and mitigation theoretically provides four co-benefits of interest to the Canadian energy sector: 1) reduced competition for resources, referring to capital savings resulting from improved project efficiencies; 2) reduced influence of scientific uncertainty for adaptations resulting from the shorter timelines and measurable outcomes of mitigation projects; 3) harmonization of implementation objectives resulting from synergies between mitigation and adaptation projects; and 4) improved social license of mitigation projects provided by accrual of local benefits derived from adaptation. Through the investigation of eleven case studies, our research demonstrates the presence of these co-benefits where integration is observed. Qualitative Comparative Analysis (QCA) is used to link observed input variables to identified co-benefits. This research suggests that integration is an effective means of generating co-benefits that contribute positively to project outcomes. The research further concludes that effective leadership support, either through public-private partnership and energy policy, is one means of achieving such explicit integration. Energy policy, in the form of voluntary instruments and incentives, is recommended to build necessary public-private partnerships and support leadership. Such policy recommendations have applications far beyond the energy sector and the lessons learned here can likely be applied to cases outside of it. - Highlights: • Four co-benefits of integration were identified in a literature review and demonstrated in a case study context. • Based on eleven case studies these co-benefits are valued by the Canadian Energy Sector. • Integration is occurring in a weak policy environment that supports it. • Integration occurs through a combination of intent and leadership. • Benefits are accruing through integration but accrual can be improved.
[en] This study investigates the impact of policy consistency on technological competitiveness using patent citation analysis. Policy support plays a key role in promoting firms’ investment in research and development (R&D) activities, especially in emerging sectors. Policy consistency increases technological competitiveness, since it encourages firms to invest in R&D activities. Although previous studies argue policy design and characteristics, few deal with policy consistency, and they lack a quantitative measure of policy consistency and explanation of its effects. Therefore, this study proposes the quantitative indexes for policy consistency and potential technological competitiveness. The indexes are applied to the case of renewable energy sector since energy sector is highly dependent on the government policy and thus needs high policy consistency. The result shows that renewable energy technology development is affected by policy and the higher the policy consistency especially in emerging sectors. It also shows that countries of high policy consistency tend to achieve higher technological competitiveness and thus are likely to secure higher technological competitiveness in the future. The findings of this study can be used in designing policy for sustainable technological competitiveness and will be a corner stone for researches on assessing policy consistency. - Highlights: • A novel approach is proposed for quantitative evaluation of policy consistency. • Indexes for policy consistency and potential technological competitiveness are proposed. • Countries of high consistency had incremental growth of technological competitiveness. • Consistent national R&D policy helps to achieve high competitiveness in emerging sectors.
[en] The development of methods to determine the transferability of policies between countries has received limited attention in the energy policy field. Previous research has focussed on theoretical or less formal determinants of energy policy transferability, rather than providing practical analytical tools. The paper presents a practical framework for analysing the transferability of demand-side management (DSM) policies, and to identify where policies are transferable at different levels of policy transfer. The paper tests the framework to determine the transferability of different types of DSM policy across 30 countries and 36 sub-national states. The method is a contextual-based analysis that matches up countries/states that have a comparable context at the proposed three levels of policy transfer: direct copying, adaptation and inspiration. The paper utilises Multi-Criteria Decision-Making analysis with 17 DSM experts to validate the breakdown of contextual factors at different levels of policy transfer. Four groups of countries are identified where policy transfer is possible at the adaptation level and seven groups of countries/states are identified at the inspiration level. Overall, the paper argues that context is key and the level of contextual detail included in methods to analyse energy policy transferability will affect the level of policy transfer that is appropriate. - Highlights: • A practical framework to determine energy policy transferability is proposed. • The proposed policy transfer levels are: direct copying, adaptation and inspiration. • Transfer levels relate to contextual factors, such as market structure and climate. • Data on successful demand-side policy experiences in 30 countries are used. • Transfer is possible at the adaptation and inspiration levels for identified countries.
[en] Recent years have seen a growing interest in the concept of social acceptance, especially in the wake of the transition from non-renewable to renewable energy sources. Social acceptance is thereby studied from very different backgrounds and based on distinct conceptualizations. We argue that the reason for the great variety in the use of 'acceptance' is not mainly its interdisciplinary and multidimensionality, but a missing policy making perspective and its insights and knowledge about processes, actors and (in)formal decision-making. This contribution proposes a framework to refine the concept of social acceptance. Taking into account that the stage and specificity of the policy making process heavily influence the response towards RET and the process triggered, we identify three steps that need to be addressed when defining a research design that includes social acceptance: the object and context under scrutiny, the relevant actors, and the roles they play. Our proposed framework thereby adopts a political science point of view and the main research interest deals with political actors deciding upon and implementing future policies. - Highlights: • A framework to conceptualize acceptance from a policy perspective is proposed. • Actors and their roles in acceptance need to be clarified by researchers. • We present a more refined definition of acceptance, support and preferences. • Both the political elite and individual citizens are considered in examples.
[en] From past to present, Iran have been focused by international society and still have continued their enrichment activity despite of many sanctions. It is barely easy to solve this situation and to negotiate between related countries. Because there are many factors to influence this. New president of U.S. Barack Obama could be a great deal of factor for solving Iran's nuclear issue as well. From this point of view, following Iran's unsolved problems of nuclear program could be helpful to understand the situation and what the key point to solve it, and forecast the future with surrounding political and regional factors
[en] This paper examines the role played by personality traits on the adoption decision of renewable energy technologies. As a case study, we examine a policy for biogas technology adoption in rural China, and implement a large in-person farm-household survey. We find that farmers with a higher level of openness to experience are more likely to adopt the biogas technology. In contrast, farmers with a lower level of confidence in influencing outcomes they experience are less likely to adopt the biogas technology. In addition, we find that openness seems to affect adoption through the perceived ease of use of the technology. Our findings indicate that including personality traits into adoption models of renewable energy technologies can give us a better understanding of individual differences in the adoption decision, and highlight the importance of energy policies that aim to improve the perception of the ease of use of these technologies. - Highlights: • We examine a policy for the adoption of renewable energy technology in China. • We investigate the role of personality traits on the adoption decision. • We implement a large in-person farm-household survey on biogas technology adoption. • Openness to new experiences and the locus of control are determinants of the adoption decision. • Openness seems to affect adoption through the perceived ease of use of the technology.
[en] Despite its high potential to support decision-making, the role of policy assessment in real-world policy making in the field of poverty and social inequalities remains largely questioned. In this study, we analyse policy assessment's role in a context of real-world policymaking, by means of a case study on a legislative proposal on integration policy for immigrant newcomers in the Brussels-Capital Region, for which we evaluate the potential effects on poverty and social inequalities. We first analyse the policy process surrounding the policy proposal – a process that is often treated as a black box within policy assessment research. Understanding the factors that influence and determine the decision-making process, enables us to gain insight into the potential decision-support function(s). Second, we develop an approach to policy assessment that aims to fully exploit its potential to contribute to the functions of both instrumental and conceptual learning. For this purpose, we propose to introduce the approach of realist evaluation and to focus on evaluating the underlying policy intervention theory from the perspective of poverty and social inequalities. Finally, we illustrate this new approach and its added value by applying it to the legislative proposal on integration policy and analyse its contribution to policy-oriented learning. - Highlights: •The field of policy assessment should draw on insights from policy studies. •We unpacked the policymaking black-box to identify the mechanisms of policy change. •The policy process is driven by an interaction of ideas, interests and institutions. •Policy assessment's potential lies in both instrumental and conceptual learning. •We propose to integrate realist evaluation's logic of inquiry within policy assessment.
[en] Index decomposition analysis (IDA) and structural decomposition analysis (SDA) are analytical techniques that have been extensively used by researchers to study drivers of changes in energy consumption and energy-related emissions for energy and climate policy assessment and development. We compare the two techniques from the methodological and application viewpoints and with specific reference to economy-wide analysis where the overlap between the two is the greatest. Our study brings up to date several previous studies and provides a detailed assessment of the post-2010 developments. In addition, a framework for additive and multiplicative decomposition methods is presented, specific application in policy analysis is discussed with representative examples given, and the selection between the two techniques is described. Despite the differences between the two techniques in terms of origin, there has been some convergence in their application in some specific areas. However, even if the same dataset is used, application of the two techniques will lead to different numerical results due to underlying differences in some core concepts and the meanings of the drivers of change defined. A good understanding of these similarities and differences will help researchers in making sound judgment in their adoption and implementation in policy studies. - Highlights: • Comparisons of IDA and SDA in decomposition analysis. • Focusing on economy-wide energy consumption and emissions. • Detailed assessment of post-2010 developments of the two decomposition techniques. • Application in policy analysis with representative examples. • Guidelines for selection between the two decomposition techniques.