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[en] In recent years, among the problems of anthropogenic pollution of nature, the problem of exposure to organic substances of different classes has attracted great attention. Therefore, it is important to study the laws of the photochemical formation of oxygen-containing organic molecules, taking into account the anomalous phenomena occurring in the atmosphere. During the photooxidation of methane in the atmosphere, the most common hydrocarbon formaldehyde is formed. The average life span of formaldehyde in the atmosphere is approximately three hours. A study was made of the kinetic laws of formation of oxygen-containing (formaldehyde, formic acid and acetone) hydrocarbons during the photochemical conversion of air-methane mixtures.
[en] The reaction mechanism between cyclopropenylidene and formaldehyde has been systematically investigated employing the MP2/6-311+G* level of theory to better understand the cyclopropenylidene reactivity with carbonyl compound. Geometry optimization, vibrational analysis, and energy property for the involved stationary points on the potential energy surface have been calculated. Energies of all the species are further corrected by the CCSD(T)/6-311+G* single-point calculations. It was found that one important reaction intermediate (INTa) has been located firstly via a transition state (TSa). After that, the common intermediate (INTb) for the two pathways (1) and (2) has been formed via TSb. At last, two different products possessing three- and four-membered ring characters have been obtained through two possible reaction pathways. In the reaction pathway (1), a three-membered ring alkyne compound has been obtained. As for the reaction pathway (2), it is the formation of the four-membered ring conjugated diene compound. The energy barrier of the rate determining step of pathway (1) is lower than that of the pathway (2), and the ultima product of pathway (2) is more stable than that of the pathway (1)
[en] Several interesting features in trajectory were observed in the direct dynamics study of formaldehyde dissociation above radical dissociation limit. The hydrogen atom deliberately placed on the radical dissociation path can turn around at some distance from C without completion of dissociation and return to HCO moiety, colliding with it just as in a radical-radical recombination and producing a highly energized molecule. Excursion of a hydrogen atom to a distance of 6-8 bohrs and migration of a hydrogen atom back and forth between C and O are two of the most interesting features exhibited by the energized molecule. A series of excursions is seen to lead to a different kind of dissociation resembling roaming-like dissociation characterized by high vibrational excitation of H2 fragment. It is suggested that excursion occurs due to involvement of two different force field systems that exhibit discontinuity in 6-8 bohrs from HCO moiety. We argue that roaming is a non-zero impact parameter version of the excursion
[en] We report results of the H2CO and H110α survey toward 281 UCHII regions using the Urumqi 25m radio telescope. We obtained 37 new H2CO detections, and H110α was simultaneously detected in eight of them. Only H110α was detected in another UCHII region. We calculated kinematic distances of nine UCHII regions with the detected H110α and resolved the kinematic distance ambiguity for six of them. The detection rate of H2CO of our observation was 13.2%, which is low compared with one of the other authors. The possible reason is that the sensitivity of our telescope is relatively low.
[en] Studies of the 1,2 hydrogen shift in carbenes, nitrenes, and vinylidenes are reviewed. The key role of this isomerization in these unstable intermediates in organic reactions is elucidated. Isomerization possibilities of the as yet unidentified H2CN+ in the formation of HCN and HNC in interstellar space is discussed. The photodissociation of formaldehyde is explained on the basis of an unstable intermediate, hydroxycarbene. 94 references are cited
[en] We report results of an extensive observational campaign of the 6 cm formaldehyde maser in the young massive stellar object IRAS 18566+0408 (G37.55+0.20) conducted from 2002 to 2009. Using the Arecibo Telescope, the Very Large Array, and the Green Bank Telescope, we discovered quasi-periodic formaldehyde flares (P ∼ 237 days). Based on Arecibo observations, we also discovered correlated variability between formaldehyde (H2CO) and methanol (CH3OH) masers. The H2CO and CH3OH masers are not spatially coincident, as demonstrated by different line velocities and high angular resolution MERLIN observations. The flares could be caused by variations in the infrared radiation field, possibly modulated by periodic accretion onto a young binary system.
[en] The post-translational modification of proteins, including glycosylation, differs between normal and tumor cells. The UDP-N-acetyl-D-galactosamine polypeptide N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferases (GalNAc-Tases) family of enzymes regulates the initial steps of mucin O-glycosylation and is responsible for the altered glycosylation state observed in cancer cells. Recently it was found that GalNAc-T14 mRNA is heterogeneously expressed in breast carcinomas compared to normal tissue, however the expression profile of GalNAc-T14 protein in breast carcinomas compared to normal tissue is still unknown. In this study, we assessed the expression profile of GalNAc-T14 protein in malignant and non-malignant breast tissues by immunohistochemistry to evaluate whether GalNAc-T14 might be a potential biomarker for breast cancer. In formalin-fixed tissues, the expression level of GalNAc-T14 protein was evaluated by immunohistochemistry assay in breast tissues. Expression profiles were assessed in normal tissues, benign fibroadenomas and several types of carcinomas. Our results showed that GalNAc-T14 was heterogeneously expressed in breast carcinomas compared to non-malignant tissue. GalNAc-T14 expression was observed in 47/56 (83.9%) carcinoma samples, 7/48 (14.6%) non-malignant breast tissue samples. GalNAc-T14 expression level was associated with histological grade. For this enzyme a significant association with invasive ductal type, mucinous adenocarcinoma and ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) type was found. Our results provide evidence that GalNAc-T14 may be a potential biomarker for breast cancer by immunohistochemistry. GalNAc-T14 expression level was associated with histological grade. GalNAc-T14 expression can provide new insights about breast cancer glycobiology
[en] We present revised results for the main molecular species in five Oort Cloud comets observed with near-infrared echelle grating spectrometer (NIRSPEC) at the Keck Observatory between 1999 and 2012 (C/1999 S4 (LINEAR), C/2001 A2 (LINEAR), C/2007 W1 (Boattini), C/2012 F6 (Lemmon), and C/2012 S1 (ISON)). The re-evaluation of these data shows the improvement of results in some of the data sets, in particular for comets observed and analyzed before the advent of new and revised fluorescence models and terrestrial retrieval methods introduced since 2011. We observe significant improvements in the resulting rotational temperatures and the production rates for all species, and in mixing ratios of minor species (relative to water). The re-analysis also allowed us to quantify species not analyzed previously, mostly due to the lack of molecular models (e.g., ammonia and formaldehyde). We note, however, that the improvement of these revised values is less substantial for comets observed (and/or analyzed) since 2010.