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[en] Complete text of publication follows. The territory of the Republic of Macedonia occupies the central part of the Balkan Peninsula and covers area of 25 713 km2. Topographically it is with expressive mountain relief, and geologically is with complex lithological and tectonical structure. The paper presents the maps of the elements of the normal geomagnetic field on the relief and maps of the geomagnetic field elements on sea level and on the 500 m above the sea level. Analyses of the variation of the geomagnetic field elements for all maps are presented. Qualitative interpretation of the regional anomalies of the geomagnetic field with the regional geological composition of the territory of the Republic of Macedonia was done.
[en] After establishing the Department for Bone Transplantation and Bone Bank as a part of the University Clinic for Orthopaedic Surgery in Skopje in 1978, we started our activities in bone banking. In the beginning we stored the transplants at -20 degree C in a deep-freezer using standard storage procedures. Since 1986 we stored the transplants at-70 degree C in a special deep-freezer. 1012 transplants were preserved in the Bone Bank. 657 of them (65%) were used in different procedures, mainly in tumor surgery (407), revision total hip replacement (I 70), elongation of long bones (66), pseudoarthroses (I 5) etc. The most common transplants used in our bone bank are femoral heads taken from live donors during THR procedures, or small parts of cortical and cancellous bones taken during TKR and different types of osteotomies. 187 transplants were rejected due to infection after a defect in the storage system. We had good incorporation of the grafts in most of the patients, although we had delayed incorporation in 26 patients (4%), total resorption of the graft in 9 patients (1.4%), and infection in 4 patients (0.6%). Fracture of the graft occurred in 3 cases (0.5%). After the recognition and becoming a regular member of the United Nations as a former Yugoslav Republic in 1992, Republic of Macedonia started with the so-called 'transitional' period in all parts of life, especially in legislation. After bringing the systemic Health Law in 199 1, the Parliament brought 'The Law for taking, exchange, transportation and transplantation of parts of the human body by reason of curing' in June 1995. This Law defines the conditions under which it is possible to take, store, process, exchange, transport and transplant parts of the human body by reason of curing and the rights, obligations and conditions that have to be fulfilled by the Health Organizations and other organizations engaged in these activities. This Law accepts 'brain death' item, as biological death concept. The cell and tissue banks function as non-profitable, non-commercial / trade organizations. The principle of donation is voluntarily. The article 6 of the Law regulates which parts of the deceased (cadaver) can be taken for transplantation, that is, if the deceased person during his life has not declared in written form, that parts of his body can not be used for transplantation. This is probably a solution and compromise between 'opting in' and 'opting out', close to the proposed concept of 'informed consent' from Von Versen. We called this regulation as 'voluntary negative selection'. We think that this regulation stimulates the transplantation by reason of curing, respecting the ethical and moral problems. Despite all difficulties encountered, we try to work in accordance to the EATB standards and aim to accomplish similar results as other Bone Banks around the World by using the latest methods for bone procurement
[en] The world is in the third wave of development, which is digital managed and networked. Information, which creates the knowledge is transferring thorough the Internet by exponential function. The rapid advancement of the computer technology has a great influence over the development of the critical information infrastructure, thus changing the safety environment and the national values and interests. This advancement produces threats and risks from computer perspective which are sublimated in different forms of international terrorism and particularly in cyber terrorism. The main aim of this paper is based on a thorough analysis of what is scientifically known and practiced when nowadays critical information infrastructure is in the focus of the cyber terrorism. The rapid IT development demands changes in the strategic management focus. As a result of a time-consuming theoretical and empirical research this paper suggests a methodology for strategic managing of: threats, risks and vulnerabilities. The proposed methodology is seen as a mean to increase the human security conscious in every sense of the word, and to promote the need for rules, procedures and standards establishment from the aspect of the strategic management in the new information epoch concerning. In addition, through a scientific discourse, a short attempt is made to relate Macedonian reality with the phenomenon mentioned above. The most fundamental set phrase is that the efficiency and promptly made decisions during strategic planning are a projection of the systematic organization of functions and models for managing the risks and threats of the critical information infrastructure. Hence, this paper could be seen as a perspective when taking in consideration the regional strategic management, and the cyber space vital functioning. (author)
[en] Nuclear Energy Program (NEP) for each country, especially for newcomer countries is a long-term process with lot of challenges for the political establishment of the country, as well as for the institutions and all involved stake holders.According the IAEA recommendations, the process can be divided in 3 continuous phases. The achievement of the infrastructure conditions for each of these phases is marked by a specific milestone at which point the progress and success of the development effort can be assessed and a decision made to move on to the next phase. These 3 milestones are:— Milestone 1: Ready to make a knowledgeable commitment to a nuclear programme;— Milestone 2: Ready to invite bids for the first nuclear power plant (NPP);— Milestone 3: Ready to commission and operate the first NPP.Some aspects which are analyzed for the case of Macedonia as an embarking country for NEP are the following ones:•Covering the energy needs in the future energy mix including all options for new generation capacities•Establishing the necessary infrastructure and capacities for nuclear power option•Human resources needs for NEP•Transfer the technologies in nuclear power from vendors to the country•Financing the high investment nuclear power plant. All these highlights are treated in the paper, taking into account the results from the appropriated studies made in the academic institutions and energy companies in the country. The potential opportunities for development the NEP in Macedonia can be used as a base document with lot of collected database of national education, industry and energy infrastructure in Macedonia for further studies and research.
[en] Complete test of publication follows. Mean Glandular Dose (MGD), dose distribution, phantom and quality of the real mammogram were studied for the first time in Macedonia. The study was conducted to review the condition of mammography equipment, to access the dose and image quality in mammography practices in Macedonia.. The purpose was to find out the weak points in the mammography practices in order to suggest improvements in the practices and establish quality control procedures. Under evaluation were 12 monographic machines. MGD was estimated using Entrance Surface Air KERMA at the breast surface Kf measured free in air and appropriate conversion factors. Dose survey was curried by measurement and calculated of the HVLs and radiation output for 25-32 kVp and keeping record of the clinical parameters (breast thickness, kVp, mAs). Image quality was evaluated using the Mammographic Accreditation Phantom Gammex 156, PMMA plates and test tool for film processing.
[en] During the months of June–July 2017, the Lake Ohrid area in the southwestern Macedonia experienced a series of small to intermediate earthquakes. More than a thousand earthquakes occurred in that period, all in the epicentral area about 10 km east-northeast from Ohrid city center. The earthquakes showed characteristics of a swarm with 50 of them having magnitudes of 3 or greater and the strongest reaching magnitude M5.0. The earthquakes caused concern among the people in Ohrid and neighboring cities and villages and prompted the installation of two networks of temporary stations. One network was deployed in the epicentral area to determine in more detail the earthquakes’ depth and source parameters. The other urban network of instruments was installed to monitor the influence of the ground on the amplification of shaking and the dynamics of structures in the city of Ohrid. In this study, a selection of the urban network strong motion (SM) records was analyzed for the first time. Accelerograph records from a magnitude M3.1 earthquake recorded at eight places in the city and from the two earthquakes with magnitudes M4.2 and M5.0 recorded at the permanent seismological station Ohrid (code OHR) were used. The results of the behavior of the instrumented building were also compared with the findings of previous experiments. The differences in the spectral values on the SM records from the stations were investigated in respect to the ground conditions and location where the instruments were installed, i.e., bedrock and sediments at the sites. The power spectra and the H/V ratio of the earthquake records from the 2017 seismic sequence in the Ohrid area were also viewed in respect to the Eurocode-8. In addition to being used as part of standard engineering practice, this information about the local soil conditions can be of interest to geophysicists in seismic and geotechnical investigations, as well as in seismic risk-assessment applications.
[en] Annual rainfall analysis of some stations of Macedonia (1925-2000) shows no evidence of any long term trend throughout the XX th century, but highlights the occurrence of a decadal scale rhythm. This rhythm seems to characterize the whole Macedonia, without appearing in gauges farther away in the Balkan Peninsula. We will try to characterize and examine the possible causes of such a rhythm.(Author)
[en] In contrast to some other countries in the South East European region, there has been privatization in the Macedonian electricity sector, and today the government has a majority stake in very few companies. After 2002, the focus of domestic policy shifted to compliance with the EU Energy Directives. The main obstacles to reform arise from low payment discipline, with state institutions among the problem customers, and the fact that prices do not match costs. In order to reduce the adverse effects of the inevitable electricity prices increase to more realistic levels, the paper suggests that sustainable social support mechanisms need to be developed, and proposes some options. (author)
[en] The introduction of a nuclear energy program is a major undertaking with significant implications for many aspects of national infrastructure, ranging from capacity of the power grid, access roads and production facilities, to the involvement of stakeholders and the development of human resources. For new comers countries without nuclear power, even for those who wish to realize substantial expansion of existing nuclear capacity, it can take up to 10-15 years to develop the necessary infrastructure. One of the crucial problems in nuclear energy implementation are human resources needs and educational infrastructure development in this field. No matter what will be the future energy scenario in the Republic of Macedonia, the nuclear educational program is the first step to have HR in the field of nuclear energy. This paper presents the proposed direction for having HR for establishing national infrastructure in nuclear energy program in Macedonia. This includes establishing and developing of MONEP (Macedonian NEPIO), and the enhancing the capabilities of the national regulatory body in the Republic of Macedonia. Keywords: NEP (Nuclear Energy Program), HR (Human Resources), NEPIO (Nuclear Energy Program Implementation Organization), MONEP Macedonian Organization for Nuclear Energy Program (Macedonian NEPIO), NRB (Nuclear Regulatory Body)
[en] The object of this research is the analysis of intensity of rainfalls with different duration and returning period over the Republic of Macedonia. There are 8 meteorological stations in the Republic of Macedonia that have long-term (>30 years) pluviograph data. This data was completed and generated in some previous analyses. maximal daily (24 hours) values of rainfalls registered with Helmans totalizers, in Macedonia are 188 mm (g.s. Popova Sapka in 1979), and 175 mm (g.s. Demir Kapija) in 1995. Probabilities of their occurrence have been estimated testing and using difference distribution (Gumbel, Galton, Pirson, Freget, Bernoulli, Gauss). For that purpose the intensity of rainfall with different returning period (0,1 -50%) and duration (5-1440') has been processed In the follow table, theoretically estimated extreme rainfalls with 1% probability of occurrence on difference area RM are presented. After that, the intensity of the rainfalls expressed as [mm/min] and [1/s.ha] was estimated. The results have been used to draw the diagrams of intensity of rainfall for all 8 main meteorological stations in the Republic of Macedonia that have long-term pluviografic data. Based on the scatter diagrams some functions were defined. These functions in fact show correlation between rainfall intensity and their duration (i = f (t)). This paper gives two benefits. Firstly, the results are contribution to defining spatial-time defining of the extreme rainfalls in the Republic of Macedonia. Secondary, the results of this research gives us the opportunity, using the proper method, to define the probability of torrential rains in particular watersheds and to estimate real maximal water discharge with difference occurrence.(Author)