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[en] Food drying is one of the main unit operations for food preservation and it is based on the difference of chemical potential between the product and a fluid with lower chemical potential. The objective of this work was the development of a thermodynamic model of chicken meat drying process using infrared thermography; also the viability of using dielectric spectroscopy as a monitoring system was analyzed. A thermodynamic model has been developed to predict the expansion/contraction phenomena of poultry meat throughout the drying process. Moreover, it was demonstrated that permittivity is a non-destructive method to monitor the evolution of drying process. (Author)
[en] Food dehydration is one of a main process to preserve meal. In order to optimaze a freeze-drying operation a physic model is needed to well describe the thermodynamic behaviors involved in this process. In this work, a thermographic camera and different physico-chemical determinations are used to monitor many phenomena that occur during the lyophilization of poultry breast. Finally, a non-continuous irreversible thermodynamic model, based on thermal infrared measures and in shrinkage/swelling mechanism, has been developed, wich explains the behaviours produced throughout the meat freeze-drying process. (Author)
[en] Nature reserve designs and networks are important for wildlife and habitat conservation. Gap analyses are efficient and reliable tools for prioritizing habitat conservation efforts, especially when considering endangered species. We propose a conservation plan for the brown–eared pheasant, Crossoptilon mantchuricum, by identifying protection gap areas based on 14 existing nature reserves. A total of 45 locality sites and 11 environmental variables were selected according to the characteristics of habitat use of the brown–eared pheasant and applied to a maximum entropy (MaxEnt) model to obtain the species distribution. The MaxEnt model results showed a high prediction accuracy. The gap analysis results revealed that the Luliang Mountains in Shanxi and the Xiaowutai Mountains in Hebei had protection gaps. We found 458 km2 of optimum habitat and 1,390 km2 of moderately suitable habitat within the national nature reserve range. However, almost 1,861 km2 of the optimum habitat and 17,035 km2 of the moderately suitable habitat were unprotected, equivalent to 9.0% and 82.1%, respectively, of the total suitable habitat. Most of the unprotected area comprised moderately suitable habitat for brown–eared pheasant and should be prioritized in future conservation efforts. There are nine nature reserves along a north–to–south range in the Luliang Mountains that form a wildlife habitat corridor. To maintain the integrity, originality, and continuity of these habitats and thus protect brown–eared pheasants, local conservation departments should be strengthened to improve provincial nature reserve management and successfully carry out conservation efforts. (Author)
[en] Quail have emerged as a potential intermediate host in the spread of avian influenza A viruses in poultry in Hong Kong. To better understand this possible role, we tested the replication and transmission in quail of influenza A viruses of all 15 HA subtypes. Quail supported the replication of at least 14 subtypes. Influenza A viruses replicated predominantly in the respiratory tract. Transmission experiments suggested that perpetuation of avian influenza viruses in quail requires adaptation. Swine influenza viruses were isolated from the respiratory tract of quail at low levels. There was no evidence of human influenza A or B virus replication. Interestingly, a human-avian recombinant containing the surface glycoprotein genes of a quail virus and the internal genes of a human virus replicated and transmitted readily in quail; therefore, quail could function as amplifiers of influenza virus reassortants that have the potential to infect humans and/or other mammalian species
[en] In this study various poultry and fish feed samples were initially analyzed for presence of aflatoxin. All the samples were found contaminated with aflatoxin B I only. Contaminated samples were treated with different organic and inorganic chemicals to detoxify aflatoxin B 1 in poultry and fish feed samples. The maximum reduction in the aflatoxin Bl concentration was observed with 0.5% HCI as 14.20 ppb to 2.09 ppb (86.50%) in the poultry and 69.26 ppb to 10.46 ppb (84.89%) in fish feed samples.