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[en] In the aftermath of the 2011 accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant, monitoring of airborne radionuclides took place throughout Japan in order to track the severity of the environmental releases. In analyzing results in both the near and far field around the damaged reactors, key insights about the behaviour of radioiodine in the environment have been gained, and in particular, with respect to the persistence of its volatile forms over iodine-containing aerosols, and what this means about the nature of the accident itself. (author)
[en] UNSCEAR and ICRP have reported that no health effects have been attributed to radiation exposure at Fukushima. As at Chernobyl, however, fear that there is no safe dose of radiation has caused enormous psychological damage to health; and evacuation to protect the public from exposure to radiation appears to have done more harm than good. UNSCEAR and ICRP both stress that collective doses, aggregated from the exposure of large numbers of individuals to very low doses, should not be used to estimate numbers of radiation-induced health effects. This is incompatible with the LNT assumption recommended by the ICRP. (author)
[en] This paper discusses the future of Canada's nuclear industry and future prospects for CANDU technology. It outlines some of the major events that have an impact on Canada's nuclear industry. These are Fukushima, the energy scenario with respect to shale oil and gas, oil pipelines, international economic instability and the creating of CANDU ENERGY from the previous Atomic Energy of Canada Limited. It concludes with their perspective industry by suggesting that the Canadian nuclear industry is resilient, ready for growth but facing international government-supported competition. Domestic projects are springboard for growth and export potential is very significant.
[en] After Fukushima-Daiichi NPPs accident in 2011, Japanese nuclear experts lost the trust of the public. Trust building between experts and citizens is an important issue, at the same time, it is very hard in the present situation. In this research, we try to develop a communication method, called 'Forum', which lead experts and citizens to communicate and respect each other. Through the Forum, we found that many participants could build the relationships to respect each other. (author)
[en] After the Fukushima Dai-ichi accident, the European Stress Tests Peer Review conclusions underlined the high priority for the implementation of hydrogen mitigation means in order to practically eliminate containment failure due to hydrogen combustion. For this purpose, the installation of passive autocatalytic recombiners (PARs) was recommended as the preferred option for future upgrading. Therefore, PARs have become a key element for hydrogen mitigation in many light water reactors worldwide. Recent international research programs have significantly supported the understanding of basic operational principles of PARs. In this context, the various OECD/NEA-THAI projects based on experiments in the THAI facility or the German national H2REKO projects performed in collaboration between RWTH Aachen University and Forschungszentrum Julich (FZJ) have to be mentioned. Experimental data from these projects enabled the improvement of existing numerical models as well as the development of advanced codes such as REKO-DIREKT and SPARK. However, present knowledge of PAR behavior under challenging severe accident boundary conditions is still based on early PAR qualification tests. For reliable simulation of PAR operation under severe accident conditions, more systematic investigations are required. To fill this gap of knowledge, recent investigations on the effect of carbon monoxide generated during molten core-concrete interaction (MCCI) and superposed flow conditions performed in collaboration of FZJ/RWTH, IRSN and ICARE represent first steps towards systematic parameter variations for a more profound understanding on the influence of both early and late phase phenomena. Further experimental programs have been performed to investigate PAR start-up under high humidity, cable fire products, and carbon monoxide. While superposed flow conditions showed only minor impact on the overall PAR performance, the presence of cable fire products - especially pyrolysis products - could significantly delay PAR start-up if the fire starts in the early accident phase, e.g. as initiating event. The presence of carbon monoxide, e.g. from MCCI, was found to cause catalyst poisoning and full loss of PAR operation under specific conditions. Further analysis of PAR operation in the late phase of an accident is foreseen as part of the SAMHYCO-NET project. The presentation provides a general overview of loads on PAR operation during a severe accident and describes the experimental programs and their analysis. Furthermore, the implication of the carbon monoxide poisoning effect on PWR accident analysis results will be presented. (author)
[en] Key findings from the investigations at Fukushima stated that a lack of non-technical skills developed in emergency response personnel contributed to the extent of the accident. An appropriate combination of technical and non-technical skills (or personality traits) would result in a more resilient Emergency Operations Centre (EOC) team that may lead to better overall accident management and organizational resilience during emergency conditions. An investigation into the relevant non-technical skills was conducted for key EOC positions (EOC Commander, Operations Section Chief, Logistics Section Chief, and Planning Section Chief) at Canadian Nuclear Laboratories. This included an investigation into the scientific literature of other high-hazard industries, survey of emergency preparedness staff, structured and unstructured interviews, as well as behavioural observations in a naturalistic setting. An inventory of relevant non-technical skills for several key EOC positions is presented, along with considerations for personnel selection and training protocols for those roles. The results from this investigation are leveraged in the formation of a toolkit that can be deployed to various emergency preparedness teams to assist them in ensuring that they key EOC personnel have the requisite non-technical skills to be successful during emergency situations. This toolkit can be adapted to reflect the demands of other high hazard organizations to ensure that EOC teams have the requisite personality factors to manage emergency scenarios effectively. (author)
[en] Approximately 160,000 people evacuated the area around the Fukushima Dai-ichi NPP shortly after it was damage by the earthquake and tsunami. The evacuation order applied to 70,000 of them, while the other 90,000 left voluntarily and returned soon afterward. After more than two years, most of the 70,000 are still not allowed to return to their homes. The 1100 disaster-related deaths caused by the evacuation order show that this precautionary action, taken to minimize cancer risks, was not 'conservative.' In this paper, recent studies are reviewed on the consequences of the radioactive releases and on the benefits of many medical treatments with low doses of radiation that were carried out until the 1950s, before the radiation scare was created. Recent research has shed light on the high rate of spontaneous double-strand breaks in DNA and the adaptive protections in cells, tissues and humans that are up-regulated by low radiation. These defences prevent, repair, remove and replace damage, from all causes including external agents. Cancer mortality is reduced. The ICRP's concept of radiation risk is wrong. It should revert to its 1934 concept, which was a tolerance dose of 0.2 roentgen (r) per day based on more than 35 years of medical experience. should revert to its 1934 concept, which was a tolerance dose of 0.2 roentgen (r) per day based on more than 35 years of medical experience. (author)
[en] Korea is the fifth largest producer of nuclear power in the world. Regrettably, though, Seoul has bumped against huge public pressure to reduce the country's use of nuclear power after the Fukushima accident and the safety scandal, and has had to lower the share of nuclear power from 41% of all power by 2030 to 29% by 2035. This will nonetheless allow doubling its nuclear capacity within the next two decades on account of plans to build at least 16 new plants without increasing fossil fuel footprints. Korea currently has 23 NPPs operating to generate 30% of all electricity. Shin-Kori Units 5 & 6 are to be built on top of five NPPs currently under construction, and another four in the planning stage. Each will have a generation capacity of 1,400 MWe and be completed by 2020. An antinuclear activist has complained that these plans to build two new NPPs attest that the government is discounting the public concerns over safety. Korea has nonetheless learned the lessons the hard way from the fleet of reactors on her east and west coasts. Nuclear is making it back with the people, by the people, and for the people. Changes and challenges prevail in the global marketplace, waiting to be resolved and responded sooner rather than later. The debate on nuclear power and global warming needs to be about technology, cost, location and speed. There linger concerns about a probable accident at the Yongbyon nuclear complex given their inexperience with reactors, international isolation and domestic poverty. The latest mishap should be a wakeup call for the Pacific Rim in general, and Northeast Asia in particular. Korea promises to rewrite a tale of the two cities that has yet to be proudly told the story about nuclear beyond changes and challenges in the peninsula championing peaceful use and assuring global acceptance. Safety first and foremost - not a single accident will take place on the peninsula. Public opinion is usually based on what people have experienced through their narrow connection with the limited media for the most part. As Korea journeys on her quest to build more NPPs, it is significant to note not only how its message is to be communicated to the public, but how the news and technologies of nuclear power can be transmitted to the population without a filter, or with a least.