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[en] Methyl-tertiary-n-butyl ether (MTBE) is present upto 11 percent by volume as an additive in unleaded gasolines. Due to its high water solubility, it quickly enters into the groundwater at sites of leaking gasoline, underground storage tanks. Hence it appears to serve as an early indicator of the direction of gasoline migration. A purge-and-trap method was used to analyze for MTBE in groundwater samples. Detection of levels as low as 0.1 ppb may be achieved. Groundwater samples were collected in 40 mL VOA vials that had 100 microliters of a 24,000 mg/L aqueous solution of mercuric chloride added as a preservative. The results of monitoring for MTBE and other constituents of gasoline in groundwater samples from two sites containing leaking gasoline underground storage tanks will be presented in this paper
[en] Prices for gasoline in the Netherlands are high because of a lack of competition. The Netherlands Competition Authority (NMa) can not do anything about it. Also the most recent auction proposals from the Dutch parliament ('Tweede Kamer' or Dutch Lower Chamber) are not a consolation
[nl]Door gebrek aan concurrentie blijven de Nederlandse benzineprijzen hoog. De NMa staat machteloos. Ook de meest recente veilingvoorstellen van de Tweede Kamer bieden geen soelaas
[en] It is common belief that competition in the Italian retail gasoline activities is hindered by oil companies' collusive behaviour. However, when developing a broader analysis of the sector, low efficiency and scarce competition could results as the consequences coming from an inadequate distribution network and from the recognition of international markets and focal point
[it]In Italia spesso si ritiene che la concorrenza nell'attivita di distribuzione dei carburanti sia ostacolata dai comportamenti collusivi delle compagnie petrolifere. Ad un'analisi del settore piu ampia sorge il dubbio che la bassa efficienza e la scarsa concorrenzialita siano invece da imputare all'inadeguatezza della rete di distribuzione ed al ruolo di focal point riconosciuto ai mercati internazionali
[en] As an object of a research AI-95 gasoline samples were used. Laboratory studies were carried out on a gamma source 60''Co with a dose rate of P 0.18Gy/s within the absorbed doses of D=15-78kGy.Impact of radiation on operational characteristics of fuels in static conditions on a regular technique before radiation was researched. The aim of this work is to study the effect of ionizing radiation on hydrocarbons from fuels from Azerbaijan's oils. The results of such studies allow one to assess the radiation stability of fuels, to determine the effect of irradiation on the total composition of fuels and possible changes in the qualities of fuels.
[en] This paper studies a gasoline pumping system and evaluates the efficiency of pumping gasoline in service station. The primary motivation of the study is to determine how to improve the efficiency of pumping gasoline in service station. An experimental test rig is setup. After evaluating the efficiency of the pump under different conditions, it was found that the performance is quite different when pumping different medium, which is not match with the pump manufacturer's catalog. And it provides us a guidance to choose the operational parameters of pumps. A phenomenon has been observed which result of the appearance of the BEP (best efficiency point) and the proof needs more works.
[en] Some gasoline markets exhibit remarkable price cycles, where price spikes are followed by a series of small price declines: a pattern consistent with a model of Edgeworth cycles described by Maskin and Tirole. We extend the model and empirically test its predictions with a new dataset of daily station-level prices in 115 US cities. Consistent with the theory, and often in contrast with previous empirical work, we find the least and most concentrated markets are much less likely to exhibit cycling behavior both within and across cities; areas with more independent convenience-store gas stations are also more likely to cycle. (author)
[en] The liberalisation process of the fuel distribution activities seems to be still today incomplete and unable to ensure appropriate competition. The production of regional and national norms has often led to a chaotic stratification and to interferences among the various discipline sources of the sector. Besides this the behaviour of the regions and municipalities, supposed to play a primary role in the enforcement of the 32/98 decree, has turned out to be inadequate
[it]Il processo di liberalizzazione dell'attivita' di distribuzione di carburanti appare oggi ancora incompleto ed incapace di assicurare un adeguato assetto concorrenziale. La produzione di norme nazionali e regionali ha determinato, spesso una caotica stratificazione ed interferenza tra le varie fonti di disciplina del settore. A cio' si aggiungono comportamenti inadeguati di Regioni e Comuni, chiamati a svolgere funzioni di primaria importanza nell'applicazione del decreto 32/98
[en] During the first decades of the 20th century, a variety of gasoline refueling methods supported early US gasoline vehicles and successfully alleviated consumer concerns over refueling availability. The refueling methods employed included cans, barrels, home refueling outfits, parking garage refueling facilities, mobile stations, hand carts and curb pumps. Only after robust markets for gasoline vehicles had been firmly established did the gasoline service station become the dominant refueling method. The present study reviews this history and draws analogies with current and future efforts to introduce hydrogen as a fuel for vehicles. These comparisons hold no predictive power; however, there is heuristic value in an historical review of the first successful and large-scale introduction of a vehicle fuel. From an energy policy perspective, these comparisons reinforce the importance of a long-term and portfolio approach to support for technology development and innovation
[en] Our objective in this paper is to quantify the impact of petroleum industry consolidation on refined product prices, controlling for other important factors that could also impact prices. Our empirical analysis focuses on the US petroleum refining industry using data on industry consolidation and wholesale gasoline prices collected over the interval 2000-2008. We match refinery units to wholesale city-terminal gasoline markets, and then estimate pooled cross-section time-series regressions to quantify the impact of petroleum industry consolidation on wholesale gasoline prices at city-specific terminals. The results of the empirical analysis of mergers are mixed, showing that some petroleum industry mergers resulted in statistically significant increases in refined product prices; others resulted in statistically significant declines and still others had no statistical impact at all. Our analysis of the effects of measures of market concentration-one at the level of city-specific wholesale terminals and another at the level of regional spot markets-found evidence that less concentrated markets are associated with lower price levels.
[en] The study focused on the following three questions: (1) How does the development of the oil price relate to the development of pump prices in the Netherlands?; (2) What is the structure of the Dutch fuel prices at the pump?; and (3) What bottlenecks and other conditions exist in the Dutch gasoline market, which may hinder the market and competitive pricing ? The study focuses on Euro 95 fuel, diesel and LPG. Furthermore, a distinction is made between the main road network and secondary roads.
[nl]In het onderzoek stonden de volgende drie vragen centraal: (1) Hoe verhoudt de ontwikkeling van de olieprijs zich tot de ontwikkeling van de pompprijzen in Nederland?; (2) Hoe zijn de Nederlandse brandstofprijzen aan de pomp opgebouwd?; en (3) Welke knelpunten en andere omstandigheden bestaan er in de Nederlandse benzinemarkt, die mogelijk een goede marktwerking en concurrerende prijs-vorming in de weg staan? Het onderzoek is gericht op de motorbrandstoffen Euro 95, diesel en LPG. Daarnaast is onderscheid gemaakt tussen het hoofdwegennet en het onderliggend wegennet.