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[en] MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are known to mediate post-transcriptional gene silencing in the cytoplasm and recent evidence indicates that may also possess nuclear roles in regulating gene expression. A previous study showed that miR-138 is involved in the multidrug resistance of leukemia cells through down-regulation of the drug efflux pump P-glycoprotein (P-gp), the protein encoded by the human multidrug-resistant ABCB1/MDR1 gene. However, the transcriptional regulatory mechanisms responsible remain to be elucidated. To deepen the description of the mechanism of transcriptional gene silencing on the MDR1 promoter, we initially performed a bioinformatics search for potential miR-138 binding sites in the MDR1 gene promoter sequence. Interestingly, we did not find miR-138 binding sites in this region, suggesting an indirect regulation. From six representative transcriptional factors involved in MDR1 gene regulation, an in silico analysis revealed that NF-κB/p65 has a specific binding site for miR-138. The results of luciferase reporter assay, western blot and flow cytometry shown here suggest that miR-138 might modulate the human MDR1 expression by inhibiting NF-κB/p65 as an indirect mechanism of MDR1 regulation. Furthermore, employing the human macrophage-like cell line U937 we observed comparable results with NF-κB/p65 down-regulation and we also observed a significant reduction in the IL-6 and TNF-α mRNA, as well as in their secreted pro-inflammatory cytokines following miR-138 expression, suggesting that canonical NF-κB target genes might also be potential targets for miR-138 in leukemia cells.
[en] Different strategies have been proposed to target neoangiogenesis in gliomas, besides those targeting Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF). The chemokine Interleukin-8 (IL-8) has been shown to possess both tumorigenic and proangiogenic properties. Although different pathways of induction of IL-8 gene expression have been already elucidated, few data are available on its post-transcriptional regulation in gliomas. Here we investigated the role of the microRNA miR-93 on the expression levels of IL-8 and other pro-inflammatory genes by RT-qPCR and Bio-Plex analysis. We used different disease model systems, including clinical samples from glioma patients and two glioma cell lines, U251 and T98G. IL-8 and VEGF transcripts are highly expressed in low and high grade gliomas in respect to reference healthy brain; miR-93 expression is also increased and inversely correlated with transcription of IL-8 and VEGF genes. Computational analysis showed the presence of miR-93 consensus sequences in the 3′UTR region of both VEGF and IL-8 mRNAs, predicting possible interaction with miR-93 and suggesting a potential regulatory role of this microRNA. In vitro transfection with pre-miR-93 and antagomiR-93 inversely modulated VEGF and IL-8 gene expression and protein release when the glioma cell line U251 was considered. Similar data were obtained on IL-8 gene regulation in the other glioma cell line analyzed, T98G. The effect of pre-miR-93 and antagomiR-93 in U251 cells has been extended to the secretion of a panel of cytokines, chemokines and growth factors, which consolidated the concept of a role of miR-93 in IL-8 and VEGF gene expression and evidenced a potential regulatory role also for MCP-1 and PDGF (also involved in angiogenesis). In conclusion, our results suggest an increasing role of miR-93 in regulating the level of expression of several genes involved in the angiogenesis of gliomas. The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12885-015-1659-1) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users
[en] The classic baculovirus expression system makes use of recombinant viruses to infect cells. This infection can, by the lytic activity of the virus, only result in transient expression of the recombinant protein. In this study, an alternative baculovirus expression system is demonstrated which is based on the property of viral immediate early genes, to be transcribed by uninfected cells in the absence of the other viral gene products. An immediate early gene of the baculovirus of Bombyx mori (BmNPVIEG) has been isolated and sequenced. By using an expression vector in which the lacZ reporter gene is placed under BmNPVIEG promoter control, expression of the lacZ reported gene in insect cells in a transient way was found. When the same expression vector was co-transfected with a construct containing the hygromycin B resistance gene, transformed Drosophila S2 cells were able to express the reporter gene continuously. (author). 8 refs
[en] The feedback loop forms an important basic module of a genetic regulatory network. The dynamics of a gene regulatory network is described by a deterministic rate equation in the parameter region where the stochastic fluctuation can be neglected. In this work, I consider the deterministic rate equation for the simplest positive feedback loop with cooperative binding and baseline production and obtain an analytic expression for the phase boundary between the monostable and the bistable regions. The result is consistent with those in previous literature and puts them on a solid theoretical ground.
[en] Highlights: ► Fbxw5 enhances sumoylation of c-Myb. ► The DDB1-Cul4A-Rbx1 complex mediates c-Myb sumoylation. ► The Fbxw5-DDB1-Cul4A-Rdx1 complex is a dual SUMO/ubiquitin ligase. ► Fbxw5 suppresses the c-Myb trans-activating capacity. -- Abstract: The c-myb proto-oncogene product (c-Myb) is degraded in response to Wnt-1 signaling. In this process, Fbxw7α, the F-box protein of the SCF complex, binds to c-Myb via its C-terminal WD40 domain, and induces the ubiquitination of c-Myb. Here, we report that Fbxw5, another F-box protein, enhances sumoylation of nuclear c-Myb. Fbxw5 enhanced c-Myb sumoylation via the DDB1-Cul4A-Rbx1 complex. Since the Fbxw5-DDB1-Cul4A-Rbx1 complex was shown to act as a ubiquitin ligase for tumor suppressor TSC2, our results suggest that this complex can function as a dual SUMO/ubiquitin ligase. Fbxw5, which is localized to both nucleus and cytosol, enhanced sumoylation of nuclear c-Myb and induced the localization of c-Myb to nuclear dot-like domains. Co-expression of Fbxw5 suppressed the trans-activation of c-myc promoter by wild-type c-Myb, but not by v-Myb, which lacks the sumoylation sites. These results suggest that multiple E3 ligases suppress c-Myb activity through sumoylation or ubiquitination, and that v-Myb is no longer subject to these negative regulations.
[en] Bombesin receptor-activated protein (BRAP) is highly expressed in human bronchial epithelial cells. Recent studies have shown that BRAP reduces oxidative stress, inhibits airway inflammation and suppresses nuclear factor kappaB (NF-κB) activity. Mucus overproduction is an important feature in patients with chronic inflammatory airway diseases. Neutrophil elastase (NE) is a potent inducer of mucin5AC (MUC5AC), which is considered the predominant mucin secreted by human airway epithelial cells. Here, we hypothesize that BRAP may regulate NE-induced MUC5AC hypersecretion in a bronchial epithelial cell line (HBE16). We also investigated the underlying mechanism involved in the process. In this study, we found that BRAP was present in HBE16 human bronchial epithelial cells and was significantly increased by NE. Next, we found that the up-regulation of BRAP by pEGFP-N1-BRAP caused a significant decrease in the increased levels of MUC5AC expression, NF-κB activity, and the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK) and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) induced by NE. Meanwhile, there was a significant decrease in ROS, interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) levels when BRAP was up-regulated by pEGFP-N1-BRAP. Moreover, when cells were transfected with pEGFP-N1-BRAP and pretreated with NF-κB, ERK or EGFR inhibitors before the NE stimulation, there were further decreased in MUC5AC expression, NF-κB activity, and the phosphorylation of ERK and EGFR. These results suggest that BRAP plays an important role in airway inflammation and its overexpression may regulate NE-induced MUC5AC hypersecretion in HBE16 cells via the EGFR/ERK/NF-κB signaling pathway. - Highlights: • BRAP is highly expressed in HBE16 cell and NE can induce BRAP expression. • BRAP up-regulation reduces MUC5AC expression, NF-κB activity, p-ERK and p-EGFR. • BRAP overexpression can decrease ROS production, IL-1β and IL-6 expression. • BRAP regulate NE-induced MUC5AC hypersecretion via EGFR/ERK/NF-κB pathway.
[en] This review emphasizes aspects of biology that can be understood through repeated applications of simple causal rules. The selected topics include perspectives on gene regulation, phage lambda development, epigenetics, microbial ecology, as well as model approaches to diversity and to punctuated equilibrium in evolution. Two outstanding features are repeatedly described. One is the minimal number of rules to sustain specific states of complex systems for a long time. The other is the collapse of such states and the subsequent dynamical cycle of situations that restitute the system to a potentially new metastable state. (key issues review)
[en] Hypoxia-dependent gene regulation is largely orchestrated by hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs), which associate with defined nucleotide sequences of hypoxia-responsive elements (HREs). Comparison of the regulatory HRE within the 3′ enhancer of the human erythropoietin (EPO) gene with known binding motifs for cold shock protein Y-box (YB) protein-1 yielded strong similarities within the Y-box element and 3′ adjacent sequences. DNA binding assays confirmed YB-1 binding to both, single- and double-stranded HRE templates. Under hypoxia, we observed nuclear shuttling of YB-1 and co-immunoprecipitation assays demonstrated that YB-1 and HIF-1α physically interact with each other. Cellular YB-1 depletion using siRNA significantly induced hypoxia-dependent EPO production at both, promoter and mRNA level. Vice versa, overexpressed YB-1 significantly reduced EPO-HRE-dependent gene transcription, whereas this effect was minor under normoxia. HIF-1α overexpression induced hypoxia-dependent gene transcription through the same element and accordingly, co-expression with YB-1 reduced HIF-1α-mediated EPO induction under hypoxic conditions. Taken together, we identified YB-1 as a novel binding factor for HREs that participates in fine-tuning of the hypoxia transcriptome. - Highlights: • Hypoxia drives nuclear translocation of cold shock protein YB-1. • YB-1 physically interacts with hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α. • YB-1 binds to the hypoxia-responsive element (HRE) within the erythropoietin (EPO) 3′ enhancer. • YB-1 trans-regulates transcription of hypoxia-dependent genes such as EPO and VEGF.
[en] The EID family members, i.e., E1A-like inhibitor of differentiation-1 (EID-1) and EID-1-like inhibitor of differentiation-2 (EID-2), were identified as negative regulators of cellular differentiation. EID-1 seems to inhibit differentiation by blocking histone acetyltransferase activity and EID-2 possibly inhibits differentiation through binding to class I histone deacetylases (HDACs). Here, we report a novel inhibitor of differentiation exhibiting homology with EID-2 termed EID-3 (EID-2-like inhibitor of differentiation-3). Like EID-2, EID-3 inhibited MyoD- and GRα-dependent transcription and blocked muscle differentiation in cultured cells by binding to class I HDACs. Unlike that of EID-2, the C-terminus, but not the N-terminus, of EID-3 was required for nuclear localization. EID-3 formed a homodimer or heterodimer with EID-2. These results suggest that EID-3 inhibits differentiation by blocking transcription as a complex in cells
[en] Redd1, a recently discovered stress-response gene, is regulated by hypoxia via hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) and by DNA damage via p53/p63; however, the signaling pathway by which its expression is induced by hypoxia has not been elucidated. We demonstrated that the up-regulation of Redd1 transcription by hypoxia and high cell density (HCD) depends on cooperation between Sp1 and HIF-1α downstream of the PI3K/Akt pathway