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[en] Highlights: • The established HPV types currently number up to HPV 225. • The Gamma genus grows most rapidly, now encompassing 98 types. • Global proficiency program improves ability to accurately type different HPVs. • Global repository of clones of established types supports academic research. The International Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Reference Center supports quality and order in HPV research and diagnostics. Notably, the center assigns HPV type numbers to novel HPV types, maintains a reference clone repository, and issues international proficiency panels for HPV genotyping. The established HPV types, currently up to HPV225, belong to 5 different genera: alpha (65 types), beta (54 types), gamma (98 types), mu (3 types) and nu (1 type). Since 2014, 23 novel types have been established, 82.6% of which belong to the gamma genus. Reference clones have been provided to 44 different research laboratories and the global proficiency program for HPV genotyping has seen an increasing participation (currently 146 laboratories) and complete proficiency has increased over time (from 26% to 59% of datasets). In summary, an increasing complexity of the HPVs requires international efforts to support a recognized quality and order among HPV types.
[en] Studies on the adaptability of some soybean mutant lines at four locations. Eight soybean mutant lines and control (Orba variety) were tested for phenotypic, genotypic, environmental and adaptability values at four different locations during the dry season of 1985. According to Chang's formula, the mutant lines no. 63/PsJ, no. 71/PsJ, no. 82/PsJ, no. 91/PsJ, and no. 134/PsJ seem to have a high phenotypic value. While the other mutant no. 62/PsJ, no. 95/PsJ, no. 147/PsJ, and the orba variety seem to be low. All mutant lines and orba variety had the highest environmental value in polmas location but the lowest in the location of Bengkulu utara. The stability of genotypes were measured by Eberhard and Russel method. It was found that the mutant lines no. 62/PsJ, no. 91/PsJ, no. 95/PsJ, no. 147/PsJ, and orba variety could adapt better in infertile soil, while the others no. 63/PsJ, no. 71/PsJ, and no. 82/PsJ in fertile soil. The mutant lines no. 91/PsJ, no. 95/PsJ, no. 134/PsJ were relatively stable compared to the other mutants. (author). 5 refs
[en] The correlation of phenotypic outcomes with genetic variation and environmental factors is a core pursuit in biology and biomedicine. Numerous challenges impede our progress: patient phenotypes may not match known diseases, candidate variants may be in genes that have not been characterized, model organisms may not recapitulate human or veterinary diseases, filling evolutionary gaps is difficult, and many resources must be queried to find potentially significant genotype-phenotype associations. Nonhuman organisms have proven instrumental in revealing biological mechanisms. Advanced informatics tools can identify phenotypically relevant disease models in research and diagnostic contexts. Large-scale integration of model organism and clinical research data can provide a breadth of knowledge not available from individual sources and can provide contextualization of data back to these sources. The Monarch Initiative (monarchinitiative.org) is a collaborative, open science effort that aims to semantically integrate genotype-phenotype data from many species and sources in order to support precision medicine, disease modeling, and mechanistic exploration. Our integrated knowledge graph, analytic tools, and web services enable diverse users to explore relationships between phenotypes and genotypes across species.
[en] The kenyan highlands maize project (KHMP) evaluated 489 genotypes contained in nine trials obtained from the highlands maize gene pool ( HMGP) project of CIMMYT-Ethiopia. The trial consisted of three-way and top cross hybrids with streak resistance. similarly, 878 genotypes including single, three-way, and top crosses, were evaluated in 19 trials sourced from thehighlands maize programme of CIMMYT-Mexico. Genotypes from CIMMYT-Mexico were grouped into five maturity groups of late transitional zone (5 trials), intermidiate transitional zone (2 trials), late highland zone (4 trials) ,intermidiate highland zone (1 trial), and early highland zone(7 trials). All genotypes were white grained which is in conformity with the preferenceof the Kenyan farmers. These trials were evaluated at two sites, National Agricultural Research Centre, Kitale, and Moi University farm Chepkoilel campus, Eldoret to identify genotypes that performed well under the local conditions in grain yield per se, maturity and height. The evaluation results identified germplasm equal or superior to the performance of the local check varieties, indicating that germplasm could be selected to increase yield .Even though some of the genotypes indicated significant improvement for silk dalay, stalk and root lodge , and reduced ear height, additional improvement is required to facilitate local use of the germplasm. Selection criteria in the genotypes evaluated were based on average grain yield (> 0r 7.0t/ha), early maturirty, and reduced ear heights. The componets of the selected gynotypes will be used in the programme for the development of desirable genotypes with reduced maturity and height
[en] A minimal Lotka-Volterra type predator-prey model describing coevolutionary traits among entities with a strength of interaction influenced by a pair of haploid diallelic loci is studied with a deterministic time continuous model. We show a Hopf bifurcation governing the transition from evolutionary stasis to periodic Red Queen dynamics. If predator genotypes differ in their predation efficiency the more efficient genotype asymptotically achieves lower stationary concentrations
[en] Seven newly developed rice cultivars i.e., KS-133, DR-83, DR-64, BR-601, Gomal, JP-5 and Gomal-6, were evaluated for salinity tolerance in a glass house along with three varieties of known salinity tolerance i.e., KS-282 (tolerant), IR-6 (medium tolerant) and Basmati-385 (susceptible). Based on the survival percentage at 50 mol/m3 sodium chloride salinity imposed at seedling stage, rice cultivars KS-133, Gomal, and DR-83 showed high survival comparable to that of salinity tolerant cultivars like KS-282, and were thus placed in tolerance range. Survival percentage of JP-5, Gomal-6 and DR-64 remained in medium tolerance range (35 to 38%) as that of IR-6. The rice cultivar BR-601 showed only 13% survival and was found to be as sensitive towards salinity as Basmati-385. The results of rice survival in saline medium showed good uniformity and the check varieties showed results corresponding to those found elsewhere. Sodium (Na/sup +/) and potassium (K/sup +/) concentrations in the third leaf showed variations among different rice cultivars under salinity. There was an inverse correlation between varietal leaf Na/sup +/ vs survival percentage (r = -0.808) and Na/sup +/ vs leaf chlorophyll (r -0.857). The correlation between K/sup +/ and final survival percentage was direct (r = 0.744) and also leaf chlorophyll vs survival (r = 0.952). The shoot fresh and dry weights were greater in the rice genotypes having higher final survival percentage under saline conditions. Therefore, in addition to final survival percentage, the higher shoot fresh and dry weight under salinity could be also used as criterion for evaluation of salinity tolerance of rice. (author)
[en] The initial step in atherosclerosis is the adhesion of leukocytes to activated endothelial cells mediated by intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1). This study aimed to investigate the association of K469E polymorphism of the ICAM-1 gene and soluble ICAM-1 (sICAM-1) serum level with coronary heart disease (CHD) in Egyptian subjects. Patients and Methods: Using a case-control design, we studied 100 patients with CHD, including 73 patients with acute myocardial infarction (MI) and 27 with unstable angina (UA). The control group consisted of 50 healthy subjects with normal left ventricular function. All participants were genotyped for the ICAM-1 polymorphism by the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). Serum sICAM-1 was measured by enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA).In CHD patients, the frequencies of K genotype (KK and EK) were significantly higher when compared to controls (P<.001) and were associated with an increased risk of disease development (OR=3.8, 95% CI: 1.7 to 8.5; P=.001). K genotype frequencies in patients with MI showed no significant difference when compared to patients with UA (P= .121). Serum sICAM-1 levels were comparable between CHD patients and controls (P= .37) and between MI and UA patients (P=.23). There were no significant differences in sICAM-1 levels among patients with different genotypes (P=.532). Men presented with higher sICAM-1 levels than women (P=.004). Conclusion: ICAM-1 gene polymorphism in codon 469 is associated with a risk for CHD development in Egyptian subjects. Serum sICAM-1 is not influenced by this polymorphism and is not necessarily elevated in CHD (Author).
[en] The development of chickpea cultivars with high quality grains for human consumption is an important objective in breeding programs. Genotype and environment effects on seed quality traits (sensorial, nutritional and physical) were studied in chickpea dry grain. Twenty genotypes were grown in winter and spring sowings over two campaigns in four different locations in southern Spain. Significant differences were observed in oil, acid detergent fiber (ADF) and protein content between sowing times (S). In winter, oil and ADF content were higher, while protein content was lower. Although, in general, highly significant variation was detected for genotype (G), environment (E) and single interactions (GE, GS and ES), the genotype effect was stronger for ADF, neutral detergent fiber (NDF), oil, starch and protein content, and for physical and sensory traits (r2>27%). In contrast, environment played an important role in variation in the content of amylose and amylopectin (r2=71.7%). No high relationships were found between the sensory and nutritional or physical characteristics studied. In general, our results suggest a high genetic gain for seed quality in nutritional, physical and sensory traits in chickpea. Genotypes with good seed sensory quality should be selected in the final stages of the breeding program, because it is not feasible to evaluate very large numbers of samples. However, in some cases, moderate correlations were found between sensory and either nutritional or physical traits. Therefore, indirect selection to increase the frequency of genes for sensory traits in an early stage should be considered.
[en] Disorders of sex development (DSD) create medical and social dilemma. Maleness with XX genotype is a rare genetic condition affecting one in 24,000 new-born males. The XX male syndrome is a varied condition characterized by a spectrum of clinical presentation. ranging from normal male genitalia to ambiguous sex. Chromosomal anomalies are important cause of lack of development in secondary sexual characteristics, delayed puberty, miscarriage, infertility and other associated problems. An individual having ambiguous sex may have lifelong impact on social, psychological and sexual functions. The present case study describes the hormonal, clinical and molecular cytogenetics data of sex development disorders in a patient who was phenotypically male but cytogenetic analysis revealed 46.XX. (author)