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[en] In this paper, we investigate the network of ownership relationships among European firms and its embedding in the geographical space. We carry out a detailed analysis of geographical distances between pairs of nodes, connected by edges or by shortest paths of varying length. In particular, we study the relation between geographical distance and network distance in comparison with a random spatial network model. While the distribution of geographical distance can be fairly well reproduced, important deviations appear in the network distance and in the size of the largest strongly connected component. Our results show that geographical factors allow us to capture several features of the network, while the deviations quantify the effect of additional economic factors at work in shaping the topology. The analysis is relevant to other types of geographically embedded networks and sheds light on the link formation process in the presence of spatial constraints.
[en] The EU Renewable Energy Strategy (RES) Directive requires that each member state obtain 20% of its energy supply from renewable sources by 2020. If fully implemented, this implies major changes in institutions, infrastructure, land use, and natural resource flows. This study applies a political geography perspective to explore the transition to renewable energy use in the heating and cooling segment of the Swedish energy system, 1980–2010. The Nordic welfare model, which developed mainly after the Second World War, required relatively uniform, standardized local and regional authorities functioning as implementation agents for national politics. Since 1980, the welfare orientation has gradually been complemented by competition politics promoting technological change, innovation, and entrepreneurship. This combination of welfare state organization and competition politics provided the dynamics necessary for energy transition, which occurred in a semi-public sphere of actors at various geographical scales. However, our analysis, suggest that this was partly an unintended policy outcome, since it was based on a welfare model with no significant energy aims. Our case study suggests that state organization plays a significant role, and that the EU RES Directive implementation will be uneven across Europe, reflecting various welfare models with different institutional pre-requisites for energy transition. - Highlights: ► We explore the energy transition in the heating/cooling sector in Sweden 1980–2000. ► The role of the state is studied from a political geography perspective. ► The changing welfare model offered the necessary institutional framework. ► Institutional arrangements stand out as central to explain the relative success. ► The use of renewables in EU member states will continue to vary significantly.
[en] The gravity model (GM) analogous to Newton’s law of universal gravitation has successfully described the flow between different spatial regions, such as human migration, traffic flows, international economic trades, etc. This simple but powerful approach relies only on the ‘mass’ factor represented by the scale of the regions and the ‘geometrical’ factor represented by the geographical distance. However, when the population has a subpopulation structure distinguished by different attributes, the estimation of the flow solely from the coarse-grained geographical factors in the GM causes the loss of differential geographical information for each attribute. To exploit the full information contained in the geographical information of subpopulation structure, we generalize the GM for population flow by explicitly harnessing the subpopulation properties characterized by both attributes and geography. As a concrete example, we examine the marriage patterns between the bride and the groom clans of Korea in the past. By exploiting more refined geographical and clan information, our generalized GM properly describes the real data, a part of which could not be explained by the conventional GM. Therefore, we would like to emphasize the necessity of using our generalized version of the GM, when the information on such nongeographical subpopulation structures is available. (paper)
[en] The Geological Map of Uruguay Esc. 1.500.000 is part of the Geological Map Programme developed by the Institute Geologic during the years 1977 - 1980. Its memory describe the geography, the lit ho stratigraphy and the crystalline area in the soil of Uruguay.
[en] The geological record of Hispaniola documents a continuous increase in island surface since the Early Pleistocene due to the emergence of marine deposits. In eastern Hispaniola, the Llanura Costera del Caribe and the Los Haitises regions formed by the emergence in the Early-Middle Pleistocene of limestone of the Los Haitises Formation, and marls and marly limestone of the Yanigua Formation (Pliocene-Early Pleistocene). These formations were both deposited on the platforms surrounding the precursor relief of the Cordillera Oriental. In the Coastal Belt of the Llanura Costera del Caribe, continued uplift and Pleistocene global sealevel changes are reflected by two main stepped depositional terraces comprising reef limestone of the La Isabela Formation. Radiometric dating indicates the lowest terrace of the La Isabela Formation (Lower Surface of the Llanura Costera del Caribe) formed during MIS 5e in the Late pleistocene. The age of the Upper Surface of the Llanura Costera del Caribe estimated by extrapolation of uplift rates deduced from the age of the lowest terrace is consistent with the available biostratigraphic age (Early Pleistocene) for the last deposition phases of the Los Haitises Formation. Correlation of the Upper Surface with erosional surfaces in the Cordillera Oriental and the Los Haitises region allows a reconstruction of the palaeogeographic changes in eastern Hispaniola during the Quaternary
[es]La historia geológica de la isla de La Española registra un continuo incremento de su superficie, al incorporar sucesivas formaciones generadas en ambientes marinos. Dicho incremento es especialmente patente en el sector oriental de la isla, donde al ascenso de una incipiente Cordillera Oriental se han sumado las emersiones sucesivas de la plataforma plio-pleistocena constituida por las formaciones Los Haitises y Yanigua, y de las plataformas arrecifales pleistocenas de la Formación La Isabela, dando lugar a la Llanura Costera del Caribe y a la región de Los Haitises. Las terrazas marinas escalonadas que reflejan la emersión de las plataformas arrecifales y que integran la Franja Litoral de la Llanura Costera del Caribe, permiten establecer un marco temporal para la secuencia de acontecimientos que condujeron al modelado actual. La correlación de dichas terrazas con las superficies reconocidas en la Cordillera Oriental y en la región de Los Haitises, permite esbozar la evolución paleogeográfica del sector oriental de La Española, cuya fisonomía ha sido adquirida prácticamente a lo largo del Cuaternario. A finales del Plioceno, el sector oriental de La Española poseía una extensión de 4250 km2 , que se incrementó en 8200 km2 con las emersiones acontecidas en el Calabriense-Pleistoceno Medio y en 1725 km2 con las emersiones posteriores, hasta alcanzar los 14175 km2 actuales, lo que supone un incremento superficial superior al 230% durante el Cuaternario.