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[en] Essential to the use of stable isotopes as natural tracers and geothermometers is the knowledge of equilibrium isotope partitioning between different phases and species, which is usually a function of temperature only. The one exception known to date is oxygen and hydrogen isotope fractionation between liquid water and other phases (steam, gases, minerals), which changes upon the addition of salts to water, i.e., the isotope salt salt effect. Our knowledge of this effect, the difference between activity and composition (a-X) of isotopic water molecules in salt solutions, is very limited and controversial, especially at elevated temperatures. For the last several years, we have been conducting a detailed, systematic experimental study at Oak Ridge National Laboratory to determine the isotope salt effects from room temperature to elevated temperatures (currently to 500 degree C). From this effort, a simple, coherent picture of the isotope salt effect is emerging, that differs markedly from the complex results reported in the literature. In this communication, we present an overview on the isotope salt effect, obtained chiefly from our study. Observed isotope salt effects in salt solutions are significant even at elevated temperatures. The importance and implications of the isotope salt effect for isotopic studies of brine-dominated systems are also discussed in general terms
[en] The concentrations of rare-earth elements (REE) were determined in thermal waters from hot springs in the Oregon Cascades and southeastern Oregon, and from wells in the Beowawe (NV), Dixie Valley (NV) and Heber (CA) geothermal fields. The waters are all near-neutral to slightly alkaline, and dominated by sodium chloride or sodium bicarbonate. Concentrations of REE range from <10-6 to approximately 10-3 times chondrite. In general, filtered aliquots of the fluids contain substantially less REE (sometimes by an order of magnitude or more) than corresponding unfiltered aliquots, suggesting a considerable particulate contribution to the total REE. Concentrations of REE in the waters from Beowawe and Dixie Valley are generally quite low, possibly owing to loss of REE on boiling. Most of the waters exhibit LREE-enriched, chondrite-normalized REE patterns, with slight or non-existent Eu anomalies. The main exceptions are the waters from Heber, which exhibit a concave-upward pattern with a prominent, positive Eu anomaly ('Mexican hat' pattern). The behavior of REE in waters from continental geothermal systems is a useful indicator of water-rock interaction and holds promise as a potential tool for exploration
[en] A common mineral geothermometer for eclogites is based on Fe2+-Mg exchange reaction between garnets and clinopyroxenes. For the accurate determination of Fe2+ in omphacites, ten omphacite samples were isolated from eight Sudetic eclogites and studied by electron microprobe and Moessbauer spectroscopy. Garnet-clinopyroxene equilibration temperatures for two Sudetic eclogites were calculated
[en] One critical factor for success in characterizing metals polluting mining environments so as to be able to eliminate them and subsequently recover these areas depends upon a speedy and correct response in the analysis of samples. Rapid, simultaneous, multi-element analysis can be undertaken using X-ray fluorescence spectrometry, a versatile, non-destructive analytical technique commonly employed to identify both major and minor elements in samples related to environmental studies. An additional advantage of this technique is the possibility of conducting the analysis directly on solid samples, which is extremely convenient when dealing with environmental samples that are difficult to dissolve, such as soils, sediments and mining wastes. Moreover, in recent years the development of spectrometers equipped with digital-signal processors combined with enlarged X-ray production, using better designs for excitation-detection, has contributed to an improvement in instrumental sensitivity, thus allowing us to detect important polluting elements such as Cd and Pb at trace levels. In this paper the authors describe, on the basis of their own experience, some interesting applications of XRF spectrometry for the analysis of several types of environmental samples related to the study of the dispersion of metals within mining environments: (A) analysis of mining wastes, soils and sediments; (B) analysis of samples of vegetation used as bio indicators or related to phyto remediation studies; and (C) analysis of water samples related to mining operations. (Author) 26 refs.
[en] Noghan granitoid intrusion is located at the NW of Boin- Miandasht and lies in the Sanandaj-Sirjan structural zone (SSZ). Body shape is a stretched ellipsoid with NW-SE strike. The meta-granite body is extremely deformed and displays mylonitic structure such as lineation and foliation. Mylonitic texture is main texture but also show seriate granular and lipido-granoblastic textures. The main minerals are quartz, K-feldspar, plagioclase, Biotite and muscovite. Chlorite is an accessory mineral. The biotite is magmatic and recrystallized. The chlorites are alteration product. The geothermometry of biotites and chlorites shows the temperatures of 397-549°C and 231-252 °C that show good correlation with microstructure in the rock. Therefore, mantle microstructure including recrystallized subgrains in porphyroclast rims that result to Grain boundary migration and chessboard undulose extinction with fine blocky grains and amoeboid grain in quartz grains show formation temperature close to 500 °C. Microstructures such as undulose extinction, pressure solution and in quartz, tensile fracture and bookshelf sliding in feldspar, brittle fractures and displacement of folded pieces in biotite display that temperature is lower than 300°C.
[en] The thermoluminescence (TL) characteristics of quartz are highly dependent of its thermal history. Based on the enhancement of quartz luminescence occurred after heating, some authors proposed to use quartz TL to recover thermal events that affected quartz crystals. However, little is know about the influence of the temperature of quartz crystallization on its TL characteristics. In the present study, we evaluate the TL sensitivity and dose-response curves of hydrothermal and metamorphic quartz with crystallization temperatures from 209 ± 15 to 633 ± 27 oC determined through fluid inclusion and mineral chemistry analysis. The studied crystals present a cooling thermal history, which allow the acquiring of their natural TL without influence of heating after crystallization. The TL curves of the studied samples present two main components formed by different peaks overlapped around 110 oC and 200-400 oC. The TL sensitivity in the 200-400 oC region increases linearly with the temperature of quartz crystallization. No relationship was observed between temperatures of quartz crystallization and saturation doses (<100 Gy). The elevated TL sensitivity of the high temperature quartz is attributed to the control exerted by the temperature of crystallization on the substitution of Si4+ by ions such as Al3+ and Ti4+, which produce defects responsible for luminescence phenomena. The linear relationship observed between TL in the 200-400 oC region and crystallization temperature has potential use as a quartz geothermometer. The relative abundance of quartz in the earth crust and the easiness to measure TL are advantageous in relation to geothermometry methods based on chemistry of other minerals.
[en] Kirsehir-Mucur-Guemueskent area, in Central Anatolia, is situated in a potentially important geothermal region. To the northern part of the field Cicekdagi (Mahmutlu) hot springs (68 degrees) and Yerkoey (Bulamacli) spa (42 degrees), to the western part Kirsehir (Terme) and Karakurtlu spas (59 and 50 degreesrespectively), to the eastern part Kozakli geothermal field (95 degrees) is located. In Mucur-Kyran field, the temperature of waters pumped from shallow wells drilled in the plain for irrigation are between 31.7 and 34.3 degrees and their total mineralisations are 1900-2055 mg/lt. The hydrochemical facies of the hot springs are Na-Cl, and of cold springs Na-Cl-HCO3 and Ca-HCO3. Thermal waters comes out to the surface along a possible NE-SW fault and flows laterally through the plain. Possible reservoir rocks are marble, quartzites and calcschists that belong to Kirpehir Massif in Mucur-Kiran field. In Kirsehir-Mucur-Kiran area, according to 18O, 2H and 3H isotope data, the origin of the hot and mineralised waters are meteoric and they loose their temperatures due to the circulation through geologic units
[en] The Nasrand intrusion (33°13'–33°15' N, 52°33'– 52°34' E) with an outcrop area of about 40 km2 is situated in the Urumieh–Dokhtar magmatic belt, SE of Ardestan. It is composed of granite and granodiorite and various dikes of diorite and gabbro which are intruded in it. It is intruded into Eocene volcanic rocks, including andesite, rhyolite, and dacite. The petrographical studies indicate that the granitic and granodioritic rocks contain major minerals such as quartz, K-feldspar, plagioclase, and amphibole, which are in an approximate equilibrium state. The gabbroicdioritic dikes usually show microgranularporphyric texture. They mainly consist of plagioclase, amphibole, and pyroxene. The plagioclase shows variable composition from albite to oligoclase in the granitoid rocks and from oligoclase to bytownite in dioritic and gabbroic dikes (Deer et al., 1991). The amphiboles are calcic and their composition varies from hornblende to actinolite, whereas the composition of the basic dikes is inclined to hastingsite (Leake et al., 1997). Actinolitic probably crystallized as a subsolidus phase. Pyroxene in the dikes is clinopyroxene with augite- diopside composition (Morimoto, 1988).