Results 1 - 10 of 1969
Results 1 - 10 of 1969. Search took: 0.026 seconds
|Sort by: date | relevance|
[en] This study is concerned with direct crystallization of ammonium uranyl carbonate (AUC) from a uranium loaded organic phase (30% TBP in kerosene), with ammonium carbonate (NH4)2CO3. The effects of operating conditions ((NH4)2CO3 concentration, flow-ratio, residence time, temperature) on the physical properties of AUC crystals (particle size distribution, specific surface, density...) are reported. All products were identified (both by chemical analysis, X-Ray diffraction) as being ammonium uranyl carbonate crystals (AUC). The results show that a high phase ratio and (NH4)2CO3 concentration favor the formation of fine AUC grains and aggregates. This is due mainly to the high concentration of NH+4 in the system which leads to a high solution supersaturation and consequently to a rapid formation rate of crystal (germination). The reverse phenomenon is observed at low phase ratio and (NH4)2CO3 concentration, where germination and crystal growth are slow and the product is mainly monocrystal. In the intermediate range, a mixture of polycrystal and aggregates is obtained. Residence and temperature are also shown to have an effect on the processes (the effect of time being more important than temperature). In the course of this study a bench-scale stripper-crystallizer was developped and operated successfully. (author). tables, graphs
[en] Experiments were conducted to investigate the antifungal activities of polyhexamethyleneguanidine (PHMG) derivatives introduced into polylactide (PLA), polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) and polycaprolactone (PCL) against Aspergillus niger, Penicillium chrysogenum and Candida albicans. All of the PHMG derivatives inhibited the germination of A. niger and P. chrysogenum. All of the derivatives exerted a much stronger inhibitory effect on the cells of C. albicans. PHMG granular polyethylene wax (at the concentration of 1.0%) has a fungicidal effect. The reduction in the number of yeast cells capable of growing on the surface composites PLA, PHB and PCL with PHMG granular polyethylene wax for 24 h was R > 2. PHMG derivatives introduced into PLA decreased hydrolases activity in A. niger and P. chrysogenum. All of the PHMG derivatives introduced into all investigated polymers inhibited the hydrolases activity in C. albicans proportionately to concentration. PHMG granular polyethylene wax at a concentration of 1.0% most strongly inhibited hydrolases activity in yeast. The composites produced from PLA, PHB, PCL and this PHMG derivatives can be used in many areas to reduce the growth of yeast. The studied composites can potentially be used for the production of biomedical or packaging materials.
Graphical AbstractPHMG derivates introduced into polymer have slightly biocidal properties against molds and strong against yeast. The composites produced from PLA, PHB, PCL and this PHMG derivatives can be used in the many areas to reduce the growth of yeast. The studied composites can potentially be used for the production of biomedical or packing materials. .
[en] The study was conducted to evaluate the effect of NaCl salinity on germination and emergence of Physalis ixocarpa and Physalis peruviana. Seeds of P. ixocarpa and P. peruviana were germinated by the use of 0, 30, 60, 90, 120 and 180 mM NaCl solutions in petri dishes. Final germination percentage (FGP) decreased with the increase in NaCl concentration. Both species germinated at the ranges of salinity. P. peruviana gave the greater germination percentages under salt stress than P. ixocarpa. NaCl salinity at different concentrations adversely affected germination rates. For seedling growth, seeds of both species were sown at 10 mm depth in plastic trays filled with peat to determine final emergence percentage (FEP). The trays were irrigated manually to saturation every day with 0, 30, 60, 90, 120, 150 or 180 mM NaCl solutions to maintain the level of salinity. Salinity affected seed emergence and seedlings growth more than seed germination. The study showed that no emergence of Physalis was observed at 90, 120 and 180 mM NaCl salinity. Fresh and dry weights of normal seedlings were also evaluated. Salt stress significantly decreased the plant fresh and dry weight of both species. Based on the results of the experiment, it can be concluded that seedling emergence and growth is more sensitive to salt stress than seed germination in Physalis. (author)
[en] Aim of study: The purpose was to determine the type of dormancy and the optimal germination conditions of Phillyrea angustifolia (Oleaceae) seeds. Area of study: Germination requirements of P. angustifolia seeds collected from wild plants growing in the province of Ávila (Central Spain) were studied. Materials and methods: Seed water uptake was measured. Seeds with and without an endocarp were germinated at different temperatures, and several treatments were tested. Main results: The lignified endocarp interferes mechanically with the emergence of the radicle, and the treatments that achieved the highest germination percentages were the total removal of the endocarp with pliers (84%) or the immersion in liquid nitrogen for 1 min (97%). Scarification with concentrated sulphuric acid did not significantly increase germination compared to the control seeds, and treatments with dry heat or wet heat were detrimental to seed germination. The optimum temperature for germination was 15 ºC. A pre-sowing treatment of soaking in distilled water for 24 h slightly increased germination speed. Neither cold stratification at 5 ºC nor soaking in a gibberellic acid solution improved seed germination. Research highlights: Phillyrea angustifolia seeds have physiological dormancy – that is, the embryo does not have enough growth potential to overcome the mechanical restriction of the lignified endocarp. The seeds do not exhibit physical dormancy, given their water-permeable lignified endocarp. Our results suggest that the optimum germination protocol for P. angustifolia would be the total removal of the endocarp or immersion in liquid nitrogen for 1 min, followed by immersion in distilled water for 24 h and then seed incubation at 15 ºC in light or darkness.
[en] In a laboratory trial three chickpea varieties viz, Karak-I, Karak-III and Shenghar were tested against the phytotoxicity of five weed species: Parthenium hysterophorus L., Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trin., Datura alba L., Cyperus rotundus L. and Convolvulus arvensis L.in January 2013. The weed extracts were prepared at the rate of 120 g/L (w/v) after shade dry. The results indicated highly significant inhibitory effect of all the tested weed species on the chickpea varieties. The results also showed that the chickpea variety Karak-III was more susceptible to the phototoxicity of the tested weed extracts. Among the extract, C. arvensis proved much toxic in term of inhibition of germination by giving only 43.33% germination in comparison with control where 97.50% germination was recorded. On the other hand, the effect of P. australis extract was found a little stimulator by speeding the seed germination in all varieties and giving a low (2.21) mean germination time (MGT) value. From the current results it can be concluded that the infestation of C. arvensis can pollute the soil by accumulating toxic chemicals that leads to the germination failure and growth suppression in chickpea. Therefore, the prevention and removal of C. arvensis in the chickpea growing areas could be recommended. In addition, P. australis must be tested against chickpea weeds (chickpea varieties withstand against its phototoxicity), so that it can be popularized as bio herbicide in chickpea if it gave promising results in controlling chickpea weeds. (author)
[en] Long term ex situ conservation depends on seeds response to desiccation and storage temperatures. This was the objective of this work. Moisture content (MC) of fresh seeds was assessed in oven at 103 Celsius degrade weighting the samples at regular intervals till constant weight. Seed tolerance to desiccation and temperatures was evaluated with 5 germination experiments: fresh seeds (10-12%MC); 3-5% MC and 3-5% MC stored 3 months at 25, 5 y -20 Celsius degrade, in two treatments: control and scarification. Moisture content was 11% in both species. In P. nigra seed germination was higher than 80% in scarified seeds in all experiments. Germination in the control seeds decreased with desiccation and storage. The storage temperature did not affect germination. The Z. mistol germination of fresh endocarps was low (<35%) and increased with the reduction in MC. In summary, P. nigra and Z. mistol are tolerant to desiccation and storage temperatures tested and can therefore be considered as probably orthodox.
[en] Melia volkensii is one of the most popular fast growing agro-forestry tree species in East Africa's arid and semi arid lands. It is valued for for production of termite resistant timber. Kenya Forestry Research Institute is carrying out studies on management, improvement and domestication of species with a major focus on improving low germination mortality and other propagation methods. Vegetative propagation was investigated in order to supplement more seedlings for increased demand of the species. The objective of this study was to determine and predict the effect of varying levels of auxin concentrations on rooting of melia volkensii shoot cuttings under different provenances. The experiment was set in a split plot design and conducted in a non-mist propagator. The number of roots was recorded for every cutting in the experiment. Mean cumulative cutting percentage were analysed using ANOVA procedures by first checking homogeneity of variance; Pearson correlation were carried out to check the interrelation of the factors with rooting and Logistic ability of the cuttings. The results showed that cuttings inoculated with 0.3 mgl-1significantly (p<0.01) rooted better than all other auxin concentration levels. Cuttings collected from Taveta, significantly (p<0.01) rooted better than those from Meru and Kitui. Overall, there was negative significant (p<0.01) correlation between rooting and concentrations with 7 mgl-1not showing any rooting from three provenances. In conclusion 0.03 mgl-1should be used for further vegetative propagation of M. vokensii. Cutting from Taveta inoculated with 0.3 mgl-1would significantly increase the number of seedlings for planting
[en] Intracranial germinoma is the most radiocurable tumor of the primary intracranial neoplasm. But, the optimum radiation dose and target volume remain controversial. We analyzed the spreading pattern at presentation and the pattern of the failure and survival of intracranial germinoma. From 1989 to 1996, 23 patients were treated for intracranial germinoma at Department of Radiation Oncology. The examination of cerebrospinal fluid cytology was done in 15 patients and 3 ut of 15 patients had positive cerebrospinal cytology. In tumor marker study of α-FP and β-hCG, 6 patients had mildly elevated β-hCG in serum or cerebrospinal fluid. Twenty-one patients were treated with whole craniospinal axis irradiation and 2 patients were given whole ventricular radiation therapy. The total dose was ranged between 4500cGy and 5600cGy to primary tumor site . Dose to the entire ventricular system ranged from 1980cGy to 3960cGy and dose to the spinal axis ranged from 2160cGy to 3900cGy. Of 23 patients, 21 patients are alive without evidence of disease for median 4 years follow-up. One patient who had markedly elevated α-FP and β-hCG suffered from persistent disease after radiation therapy and received 2 cycles of chemotherapy. She died 9 months after chemotherapy. One patient who developed ventricular seeding after gamma-knife was treated with whole craniospinal irradiation, he died after 1 year due to probably brain necrosis. The hematologic toxicity of 3 or 4 grade were seen in 7 patients, and patient's endocrinologic dysfunction was not deteriorated after radiation therapy. One patient had been treated with growth hormone replacement due to short stature. This retrospective study has confirmed the excellent result of radiation therapy in intracranial germinoma. The complication rate during or after radiation therapy is considered within acceptable range. It is necessary to further investigate the optimal dose and treatemnt volume of radiation therapy. (author)
[en] To obtain salt tolerant genotypes, salt tolerance of 10 jute genotypes of different origins was evaluated by relative salt harm rate at germination stage and by index of salt harm at seedling stage, respectively. The results indicated that salt tolerance of germination stage of jute was consistent with that of seedling stage, with a markedly significant (P < 0.01) correlation of 0.8432 (n =10). Two high salt tolerant genotypes (Huang No.1 and 9511) and two salt sensitive genotypes (Mengyuan and 07-21) were screened out by these methods. Further activity analysis of POD, SOD and CAT and determination of MDA content at seedling stage validated that genotypes Huang No.1 and 9511 were more salt tolerant than genotypes Mengyuan and 07-21. Our results indicated that the combination of relative salt harm rate at germination stage and index of salt harm at seedling stage can be used to evaluate salt tolerance of jute genotypes. (author)
[en] Broccoli(Brassica oleracea subsp. italica) cv. Green Dragon King and cabbage (Brassica oleracea subsp. capitata) cv. Gianty are important vegetable crops grown in Cameron Highlands, Malaysia. The cotyledons of both cultivars were used as explant source for in vitro shoot regeneration. The objective of this research was to examine the influence of the growth regulators thidiazuron (TDZ) and naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) on adventitious shoot formation in these cultivars. This system of adventitious shoot regeneration from cotyledon explants could be useful as a tool for genetic transformation of the subspecies. Cotyledon explants of both cultivars excised from 5-day-old in vitro germinated seedlings were placed on shoot induction medium containing basal salts of Murashige and Skoog (MS) and various concentrations of TDZ and NAA. The highest percentage of cotyledon explant of broccoli cv. Green Dragon King producing shoot (76.66%) and the highest mean number of shoots produced per explant (0.9) were obtained on 0.1 mg/l TDZ with 0.1 mg/l NAA. Meanwhile, the highest percentage of cotyledon explant of cabbage cv. Gianty producing shoots (86.67%) and highest number of shoots produced per explant (1.1) were recorded on 0.5 mg/l TDZ with 0.1 mg/l NAA. Therefore, 0.1 mg/l TDZ with 0.1 mg/l NAA and 0.5 mg/l TDZ with 0.1mg/l NAA are the recommended combinations for adventitious shoot regeneration from cotyledonary explants of broccoli cv. Dragon King and cabbage cv. Gianty respectively. (author)