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[en] This book indicates petrochemistry with summary, importance and economic consideration of organic chemistry industry, synthetic gas ; ammonia, urea, nitric acid, oxo chemicals, phosgene, formic acid and neo-acids, methane ; hydrogen cyanide, HCN and chlorinated methanes, acetylene ; vinyl acetate, neoprene, acrylates and Reppe chemicals, ethylene ; polyethylene and ethanol, propylene ; allyl chloride and isoprene, hydrocarbon: butadiene, isobutylene, aromatic hydrocarbon and other petrochemistry productions.
[en] The paper deals with the oil service company strategies. Following themes are discussed: The oil service shake out; active rig count; oil service industry recovery; listed public upstream oil service companies; international spread of public oil service companies; consolidation has created growth for some; hydrocarbon demand on the march; sample of per capita hydrocarbon demand; hydrocarbon demand model; hydrocarbon impact of new demand and replacing depleting base; ''turning on the tap'' era ending; the oil service bubble evaporates; age of the current fleets; illustration of replacement economics; illustration of operating leverage; new era management challenges. 14 figs
[en] This paper discusses quality and timely delivery of services. The approach is to support our customers, to ensure quality, schedule and cost predictability with no compromise to safety, to avoid optimistic project schedules and conservative cost estimates. It is important to maintain a strategic focus in helping to improve the customer's assets and improve the methodology to improve assets.
[en] This paper discusses on the challenges and experience in performing maintenance work at Nuclear Malaysia. Maintenance Instrumentation and Automation Center is a service center that provides maintenance services on electronic and scientific equipment within Nuclear Malaysia. Maintenance service is to support research and development and scientific services at Nuclear Malaysia. The main objective of maintenance is to ensure that the expectations of an equipment can prolong the life of an operation, reducing 'down time' and also maintenance costs. Among the challenges and experience in equipment maintenance in Nuclear Malaysia is a lack of expertise, problem of local suppliers as inability to provide after-sales service, no spare parts, technological change, lack of emphasis on maintenance and no preventative maintenance program scheduled. (author)
[en] Highlights: • Construction energy productivity convergence across Australian regions, using DEA • Regional clubs for future effective-energy-consumption production strategies • Impacts on the equilibrium and growth patterns of construction energy productivity • State level effects of booms and busts on Australian construction energy productivity - Abstract: Energy productivity reflecting the volume of goods and services with one-unit consumption of energy has become an important indicator of production and competitiveness within the construction industry. In order to understand the long-run growth patterns of energy productivity in the Australian construction industry, this study investigates the convergence of the construction energy productivity across a sample of seven Australian regions, from 1987 to 2014, and identifies regional clubs for future effective-energy-consumption strategy of production. Using a panel data approach, the study presents a picture of the impacts of the influential components on the equilibrium and growth patterns of construction energy productivity across the studied regions. The findings provide a better understanding of the impact of booms and busts on the Australian construction energy productivity, at the state level. This adds to the body of knowledge on construction productivity by adapting a panel data approach of the convergence study into construction energy productivity.
[en] The role of normative standards is to enhance the economic competitiveness of a nation by facilitating the free exchange of goods and services. Approximately 80 percent of all globally traded products are affected by standards and regulations that embody standards. In the present paper we provide a general discussion about the role of normative standards both in the United States and globally, and conclude with a specific discussion of international standards in the area of reactor technology. (authors)
[en] This paper examines the question of whether unexpectedly high energy use in the wake of energy efficiency gains can be explained as arising from increases in consumer wealth, as opposed to energy efficiency rebound effects. The analysis concludes that historical energy consumption increases were driven by more than just income levels, with the lowest-income consumers in the US using more energy in 2002 than they did in 1987 despite significant energy use efficiency gains and despite declining average incomes in this category. Further, direct use of energy in households increased for all income categories over this time period. These results point to rebound as being the culprit, not income effects. - Highlights: ► The analysis examines historical US household energy use by household income level. ► Low income earners increased their direct use of energy and energy use overall. ► Direct use of energy in the household increased for all levels of income. ► Increased incomes cannot explain unexpectedly high energy use; rebound effects can. ► Most US energy use is embedded energy—the energy “contained” in goods and services
[en] Products and services developed for a deregulated electric power industry were discussed. The wide-ranging discussion covered products created by unbundling existing services, new products and services related to energy use, products created by expansion into communications services, and the pricing of products and services. In addition to products and services, the discussion also covered strategies for a deregulated market and the challenges of raising equity capital in a regulated environment
[en] The Kyoto protocol has established an accounting system for national greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions according to a geographic criterion (producer perspective), such as that proposed by the IPCC guidelines for national GHG inventories. However, the representativeness of this approach is still being debated, because the role of final consumers (consumer perspective) is not considered in the emission allocation system. This paper explores the usefulness of a hybrid analysis, including input–output (IO) and process inventory data, as a complementary tool for estimating and allocating national GHG emissions according to both consumer- and producer-based perspectives. We assess the historical GHG impact profile (from 1995 to 2009) of Luxembourg, which is taken as a case study. The country's net consumption over time is estimated to generate about 28,700 Gg CO_2e/year on average. Compared to the conventional IPCC inventory, the IO-based framework typically shows much higher emission estimations. This relevant discrepancy is mainly due to the different points of view obtained from the hybrid model, in particular with regard to the contribution of imported goods and services. Detailing the GHG inventory by economic activity and considering a wider system boundary make the hybrid IO method advantageous as compared to the IPCC approach, but its effective implementation is still limited by the relatively complex modeling system, as well as the lack of coordination and scarce availability of datasets at the national level. - Highlights: • GHG emissions for Luxembourg are assessed using hybrid input–output (IO) modeling. • Consumer and producer perspectives are compared for the period 1995–2009. • IO-based GHG profiles are remarkably higher than traditional IPCC inventorying. • IO-based GHG accounting presents some advantages but is limited in implementation. • Key-aspects of IPCC and IO-based methods are extensively investigated and compared
[en] At present, sources of ionizing radiation, whether natural or artificial, are used in various areas of human activity. As far as radiation protection is concerned, it is necessary to know the current radiation situation in the given area. Different dose rate meters are used for this purpose. In most cases, these meters must be regularly calibrated or verified. The calibration and verification of the measuring instruments is carried out in metrological laboratories of ionizing radiation. In this paper, we describe selected possible components and options for equipping such laboratories. (authors)