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[en] The majority of rolling element bearings in use today are lubricated by grease. Grease is a two-phase lubricant with complex rheological properties and poses severe challenges for the prediction for lubricating performance. Grease lubricated contacts are liable to starvation and as a result the film thickness is reduced, which can result in surface damage or premature bearing failure. It is important to know when starvation occurs and the effect of grease type, bearing design and operation on lubrication replenishment. The influence of bearing design and operation in controlling lubricant supply to the contact zone is examined in this paper. The aim is to develop a starvation parameter capable of predicting the operating limits for a particular bearing/grease system. A number of bearing design parameters are examined in the paper; these include cage design, ball spin and bearing size. Ball spin and cage effects can be efficient mechanisms for maintaining the lubricant supply to the track. Increased bearing size, line contact geometries and high load result in reduced lubricant replenishment of the contact. Using this analysis it will be possible to establish operating limits for families of bearings
[en] The present study aims to produce low cost sophorolipids, and to evaluate their potential hypocholesterolemic impact. Sophorolipids were produced by Candida bombicola grown on safflower oil cake, extracted by methanol followed by ethyl acetate with a yield of 24.4 and 48.3 g·100 g−1 mixed substrate, respectively. Their structure was confirmed by FTIR and 1H NMR and proven to be safe when subjected to an acute toxicity test. A biological experiment was done on 42 male albino rats classified into six groups for 4 weeks following an induction period for hypercholesterolemia of 8 weeks. The two extracts and their mixture were examined for their hypocholesterolemic effect compared to rosuvastatin. The results revealed a reduction in total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, atherogenic index, liver transaminases’ activity and malondialdehyde. They also revealed an elevation in high density lipoprotein cholesterol and antioxidant enzymes which was more efficient than rosuvastatin. Histopathological examination confirmed these results. In conclusion, the newly isolated sophorolipids are powerful hypocholesterolemic compounds which are even more efficient and safer than rosuvastatin.
[es]El presente estudio tiene como objetivo producir soforolípidos de bajo costo, evaluando su potencial impacto hipocolesterolémico. Los soforolípidos fueron producidos por Candida bombicola cultivada en torta de aceite de cártamo, extraída con metanol seguido de acetato de etilo con un rendimiento de 24,4 y 48,3 g·100 g−1 de sustrato mixto, respectivamente. Su estructura fue confirmada por FTIR y 1H RMN y demostró ser segura cuando se sometió a prueba de toxicidad aguda. Un experimento biológico se realizó con 42 ratones albinos machos clasificados en seis grupos, durante 4 semanas, después de un período de inducción al hipercolesterolemia de 8 semanas. Se examinaron los dos extractos y su mezcla para determinar su efecto hipocolesterolémico en comparación con rosuvastatina. Los resultados revelaron una reducción en el colesterol total, el colesterol de lipoproteínas de baja densidad, el índice aterogénico, la actividad de las transaminasas hepáticas y el malondialdehído, mientras que mostraron una elevación del colesterol de lipoproteínas de alta densidad y de las enzimas antioxidantes más eficientemente que la rosuvastatina. El examen histopatológico confirmó estos resultados. En conclusión, los soforolípidos recién aislados son potentes compuestos hipocolesterolémicos aún más eficientes y más seguros que la rosuvastatina.
[en] Two different methods will be used to affix ladders to the active bulkhead. Layer 1 and layer 3 ladders will be attached to the active bulkhead using pins. To provide a highly conductive thermal path between these ladders and the cooling channel in the active bulkhead, a small amount of thermally conductive grease will be applied to the bulkhead just prior to ladder installation. Layer 2 and layer 4 ladders will be attached using the same method with the exception that thermally conductive epoxy will be used in lieu of grease. The epoxy is necessary in the outer two layers to maintain barrel rigidity. One major point of concern is the removal of the epoxied ladders. If removal of one of these ladders becomes necessary, it is unclear if the epoxy bond can be broken without damaging the silicon. This report is an attempt to estimate the amount of force necessary to remove a ladder, and the resulting stress that force produces in the silicon. The force necessary to remove an epoxied ladder from a bulkhead is calculated. The resulting silicon stress is also calculated.
[en] The majority of organic pollutants, after their dispersion in water then their ingestion, have a strong tendency to accumulate in greases. That is due to the hydrophobic character of these molecules. To have an idea on the capacity of a substance to accumulate in the alive beings according to their lipidic mass, the modeling of the pollutant behaviour was made by considering its partition coefficient between n-octanol (representing the lipidic mass) and water. Its knowledge represents a very significant information for the petrochemical and the pharmaceutical industries. To dissipate any doubt about confidence concerning the obtained results, it is considered useful to check the effectiveness of UNIFAC method on the monomethylbenzoic acid such as, for example, the 3-methylbenzoic acid whose n-octanol-water partition coefficient is already listed in the literature.The small deviations observed between the n-octanol-water partition coefficients listed in the literature and the one calculated according UNIFAC method encouraged us to apply it in order to predict the n-octanol-water partition coefficient of the dimethylbenzoic acid. (author)
[en] A comparison of measured and calculated propagation velocities for superconductors thermally insulated by silicon grease shows that the grease makes a significant contribution to the effective specific heat of the conductor and substantially reduces the propagation velocity compared with what would be expected for perfectly insulated conductors
[en] A detector based on a pixellated scintillator crystal coupled on two opposite sides to Silicon Photomultiplier (SiPM) strips is presented. In one direction the width of the SiPM strips matches the crystal pitch, while in the other direction the strip length is equal to the crystal pitch times the number of pixels in a row. The SiPM strips on one side are orthogonal to the strips on the other side. The crystal position can be identified using a row-column coding method. As a proof of concept, a small prototype using an array of 8 × 8 LYSO crystals, each one 1.5 mm × 1.5 mm × 10 mm in dimensions, has been built. The crystal is coupled on both sides to monolithic matrices composed of 8 SiPM strips, each one 1.5 mm wide (pitch) and 12 mm long by means of silicon grease. SiPMs strips have been obtained connecting in parallel single pixels belonging to a monolithic matrix, where each pixel has the same pitch of the scintillating crystal coupled to it. This arrangement allows a reduction from N2 to 2N of the number of analog channels needed to read-out the entire crystal array. Furthermore, this method provides the information about the Depth of Interaction of the primary particles impinging on the detector. The results of the prototype characterization in terms of energy and Depth Of Interaction resolution capabilities are presented here
[en] The feasibility of the operation of a mainshaft ball bearing with grease lubrication at high speed has been demonstrated by rig tests. Angular contact ball bearings of 8 mm bore were used under the 137 N axial load. In order to achieve a good reliability of the grease lubrication at very high speed, the bearings have been subjected to a variety of hostile tests, including the snap accelerations from 0 to 100000 rpm within 10 seconds, extended operation at high axial loading, operation at high speed, and operation exposed to hot air at turbine inlet. From extensive experiments, it was found that the bearings could be operated up to the speed of 0.87 million DN with grease lubrication, and a low-cost grease lubrication system was developed for an expendable small turbomachine
[en] With the intention of maintaining healthy environment in our rivers Vattenfall in 1988 initiated a project called 'Environmentally friendly oils'. The goal was to find oils for bearings and hydraulic systems that would cause less negative environmental effects and still maintain a good technical function. Based on the results of the project it is recommended, for both economical and environmental reasons, to change to synthetic oil in bearings and to hydraulic oil made of white oil in regulating systems. The change may be carried out in connection to other work on the system in question. Special care is recommended when cleaning the system from old oil and dirt. In order to maintain the high quality of the oil, also during manufacturing and assembling, one should follow the recommendations outlined in the report. In bearings where used grease leaks into the river, a grease made of white oil should be used. The quality of the rubber sealings must be adapted to the oil used, in order to secure a good function. In order to bring down the number of products and to create an open market some additional changes is necessary in the specifications of oil. Further research regarding oil and sealing is planned. (3 refs.)