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[en] The 15th Conference of Parties (COP 15) at Copenhagen, Denmark in December 2009 highlighted the need to combat climate change by facing the challenge of committing to reducing our emissions at all three levels with locally appropriate mitigation actions (LAMAs) at the local level to be linked to the nationally appropriate mitigation actions (NAMAs) and then contribute onwards to globally appropriate mitigation actions (GAMAs). The aim is to find solutions for both adaptation and mitigation by ensuring sufficient means are made available to support such efforts. This is because the world in entering a new phase that will be characterised by green growth in business. Thus be it agriculture that uses local knowledge of specific crop and livestock varieties to help in secure food supply, bio-energy, transport, industries, there must be policies to understand ecosystem-based to link people, biodiversity, energy, water and carbon so as to be more resilient and adaptable to the need for a low carbon economy in todays society.Climate change therefore affects organisations in many areas and they include legal compliance, carbon market, corporate social responsibility and sustainable development. Promoting sustainability requires making efficient use of energy, water and natural resources, decrease in waste load through recycling and streamlining the processes leading to everything that decreases their CO2 and water footprints. Currently there are many GHG schemes and programmes and the issues centres around compatibility, costs and most importantly credibility. Achieving real GHG emissions reduction requires controlled and verified emissions reductions and quantification that are sound and verifiable. Thanks to the development of the ISO suite of standards on GHG and related matters, the use of these harmonised standards has given the assurance that a tonne of carbon is a tonne of carbon be it in Malaysia, Mali or Mongolia.The use of these standards like ISO 14064 Part 1 for entity, organisation or country, ISO 14064 Part 2 for projects and ISO 14064 Part 3 for validation and verification of GHG quantification of GHG emissions reductions or removal enhancement is complemented by ISO 14065 for the accreditation of validation and verification bodies performing the GHG emissions quantification. This is further supported by ISO 14066 which defines the competence of the validator and verifier team where they watch the watchman. The emissions quantified is then reported as carbon footprint of products under ISO 14067 Part 1 on quantification and ISO 14067 Part 2 on communication where the requirements of quantification and communication use the life cycle assessment as spelt out in ISO 14040 and ISO 14044 and adapt ISO 14025 to report carbon footprint of products to consumers. Finally there is ISO 14069 guidance for developing organisational inventories by establishing organisational boundaries, types of emissions of direct, energy indirect and other indirect sources and provide GHG calculation methodologies. Thus building trust, governance and integrity to ensure GHG emissions measurements and projects are real, additional, tangible and independently verifiable. As a next step, ISO will be developing the measurable, reportable and verifiable (MRV) management system standard (MSS) for use as a crucial tool in quantifying emissions in LAMAs, NAMAs and GAMAs in tackling global warming. (Author)
[en] The Malaysian oil palm industry is one of the major economic backbones of the country. The industry as a whole brought in an export revenue of RM 63 billion just in the year 2015. In the past, the competitiveness of palm products along the supply chain was based on direct economic comparison with other vegetable oil products. However, with increasing attention on sustainable development, the environmental performance of products are now defining issues in trade. This articles presents the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions for the production of crude palm kernel oil (CPKO). Crude palm oil (CPO) and CPKO both come from the oil palm fresh fruit bunch (FFB). CPO is obtained from the mesocarp of the fruit and the lauric CPKO comes from the kernel at the fruit's core. CPO is produced in the palm oil mill while palm kernels which are the by-product of the production of CPO are transported to kernel crushing plants to be processed into CPKO. The objectives of this study are to quantify the GHG emissions for the production of CPKO and suggest the best solution to reduce the emissions if any. The system boundary starts from the production of oil palm seedlings at the nursery stage right till the production of CPKO at the kernel crushing plant which makes it a cradle to gate study. Inventory data for the production of CPKO was collected from 24 crushing plants which were located near the ports and two kernel crushing plants which were integrated with a palm oil mill. Weight allocation was performed at the kernel crushing plant. The largest GHG contribution came from upstream nursery and plantation with continued land use which amounts to 394.19 kg CO_2 eq/ t CPKO followed by emissions from biogas at the palm oil mill which amounts to 87.48 kg CO_2 eq/ t CPKO even though the scenario chosen is the biogas capture scenario. The third largest GHG emissions comes from the kernel crushing plant due to the processing of CPKO using the electricity from the grid which emits 74.33 kg CO_2 eq/ t CPKO. The GHG emissions from the consumption of electricity from the grid of the kernel crushing plant integrated with a palm oil mill reduced to only 7.59 kg CO_2 eq/ t CPKO. A sensitivity analysis on allocation was conducted. With weight allocation, the burden on CPKO was reduced compared to when economic allocation was conducted, where almost the whole burden was on CPKO. The allocation parameter seems to change the outcome of the study drastically because the volume of the palm kernel cake which is the by-product at the kernel crushing plant is high but has low economic value. (author)
[en] The World Conference on Environment and Development (June 1992) will decide on a global climate convention; the outcome will depend on nations' assessment of the current science and its remaining uncertainties. The UK is active not only in original scientific research but also in the assessment of current knowledge by the Inter-Governmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). This briefing examines recent scientific findings and how they may influence policies on global warming. (author)
[en] Presently, very few life cycle assessment (LCA) studies have been conducted and reported on the production of palm polyol. Previously, most of the LCA studies on the polyol production are limited to petroleum, soya or castor polyol. In this study, a LCA of a palm polyol was performed. The objective of this study is to identify any potential environmental impacts that could be associated with the production of palm polyol. The cradle-to-gate system boundary for the production of palm polyol shows that the most significant impact from the palm polyol production comes from the energy use at the polyol plant. This impact is mainly contributed by electricity, and production of hydrogen peroxide and formic acid that were used during the epoxidation process. The largest greenhouse gasses (GHG) contribution was from consumption of electricity from the national grid that was mainly used for pilot plant polyol process. However, from this study, about 29 % reduction in the GHG emissions generated by the production of palm polyol could be achieved by using the best approach normally used in oil palm industry which is using continued land use and biogas capture scenario. (author)
[en] How much must I reduce my greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions if I want to do my fair share to contribute towards the global effort to keep global warming below a 2 °C rise in average temperature over preindustrial times? This paper suggests an answer for nations and corporations that want to move ahead of legislation on a voluntary basis. If all nations reduce their “GHG emissions per unit of GDP” by 5% per year, global GHG emissions will be 50% lower in 2050 than in 2010 as long as the global economy continues to grow at its historical rate of 3.5% per year. The suggested 5% per year decline can be translated into a corporate resolution to reduce corporate “GHG emissions per unit of value added” (GEVA) by 5% per year. If all corporations cut their GEVA by 5% per year, the same global result will be achieved. The suggested 5% per year decline can be used as a guideline for responsible action on a voluntary basis. The guideline is unlikely to be made mandatory soon, but compulsory publication of the necessary emissions and productivity data by nations and corporations could help civil society highlight top performers. - Highlights: ► The world needs to reduce GHG emissions by 50% by 2050. ► Is achievable if nations reduce “GHG emissions per unit of GDP” by 5%/year. ► Or if corporations reduce “GHG emissions per unit of value added” by 5 %/year. ► Corporations that reduce GEVA by 5%/year can be said to do their fair share. ► Mandatory reporting of corporate GEVA could motivate such reductions.
[en] Basically, it is technology which created and used in a way that conserves natural resources and the environment. This technology also can be environmental friendly because the use of this technology is supposed to reduce the amount of waste and pollution that is created during production and consumption. These food wastes will come from animal bone, crab skeleton, fish skeleton, rice, noodle, vegetable and others. We collect all of these wastes and then keep it in plants, and then we make sure that this waste will turn into biogas via anaerobic digestion. All of these involved hydrolysis, fermentation, aceto genesis and methano genesis process. Methane that produced will be used in biomass plant to generate electricity. Meanwhile bio fertilizer that produced will be applied on agriculture sectors as fertilizer for plants.
[en] The need to asses the relative importance of emissions from agricultural activities in particular via-a-a vis other source/sink categories. The latter will eventually indicate the weight that should be placed on interventions on the agricultural sector and what implications this will have on the countries economic performance and food security. The objectives of this paper was to establish the inventory of the current volume of emissions as a result of enteric fermentation, anaerobic decomposition of animal wastes, rice fields under irrigation and agricultural waste management. The study made an initiative for appropriate database for future use and contribute to national GHG inventory efforts
[en] In Malaysia, the greenhouse gases (GHGs) emissions reduction via composting of source-separated organic waste (SOW) in municipal solid waste (MSW) has not been assessed. Assessment of GHG emissions reduction via composting of SOW is important as environmental impacts from waste management are waste-specific and local-specific. The study presents the case study for potential carbon reduction via composting of SOW in University of Malaya (UM). In this study, a series of calculations were used to evaluate the GHG emission of different SOW management scenarios. The calculations based on IPCC calculation methods (AM0025) include GHGs emissions from land filling, fuel consumption in transportation and SOW composting activity. The methods were applied to assess the GHG emissions from five alternative SOW management scenarios in UM. From the baseline scenario (S0), a total of 1,636.18 tCO2e was generated. In conjunction with target of 22 % recycling rate, as shown in S1, 14 % reduction in potential GHG emission can be achieved. The carbon reduction can be further enhanced by increasing the SOW composting capacity. The net GHG emission for S1, S2, S3 and S4 were 1,399.52, 1,161.29, 857.70 and 1,060.48 tCO2e, respectively. In general, waste diversion for composting proved a significant net GHG emission reduction as shown in S3 (47 %), S4 (35 %) and S2 (29 %). Despite the emission due to direct on-site activity, the significant reduction in methane generation at landfill has reduced the net GHG emission. The emission source of each scenario was studied and analysed. (author)
[en] The role that Canada might play in the Kyoto Protocol's Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) is discussed. The CDM prescribes the way in which industrialized countries could create emission reduction credits for greenhouse gas emission reduction projects in developing countries which, in turn they could use to meet their own commitments and possibly reduce their cost of compliance with the Kyoto Protocol. While Canada does not see itself as a CDM project investor, it strongly supports private sector involvement in the CDM and believes that it has a role to play in assisting CDM investments by the Canadian private sector by facilitating desirable outcomes via international negotiations on the rules and modalities for the CDM which would minimize transaction costs; give prominence to aspects that Canada recognizes as necessary precursors to mobilizing private sector involvement in CDM activities; maximize the flexibility for use of the CDM; allow for conversion of credits between different Kyoto Mechanisms; allow for the certification of emissions sequestration from sinks; and maximize the environmental and sustainable development benefits of CDM projects. Canada also supports, along with the other members of the 'Umbrella group', the fewest possible restrictions and significant autonomy to the private sector to implement a variety of project activities in developing countries. This report provides a detailed examination of the Canadian government's views on the CDM, Canada's participation in international emission reduction projects, the factors that drive Canadian demand for greenhouse gas emission reduction offsets and the potential demand for CDM offsets, Canada's greenhouse gas emission inventory and projections, the approach of Canadian corporate investors in the CDM and Canadian technology and expertise in greenhouse gas emission reductions. Various appendices to the report contain further details on a number of cooperation agreements between Canada and other countries, a list of Canadian trades of greenhouse gas emission reduction offsets, a list of potential investors in certified emission reduction credits, and Canadian actions in greenhouse gas emission reductions by upstream oil and gas producers, pipeline companies and the electric power industry. 7 refs., 10 tabs., 13 figs., 7 appendices
[en] The study was an inventory of Carbon Dioxide and trace gases in the atmosphere. The objectives of the study was to quantify the amount of carbon dioxide emitted in Kenya between 1989-1992 as a result of land use change and forestry in Kenya and to quantify the amount of carbon dioxide absorbed by the National Forestry cover in the same period. This involved the estimation of the carbon stocks removed from biomass and regeneration of abandoned managed lands. Other aspects discussed in this paper include the nature of forests in Kenya and biomass increment of the various categories of forests in Kenya plus the areas of forests converted