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[en] A radiological study on sesamoid bones of hands and feet was done in Korea adults who visited the Capital Armed Forces General Hospital Of Korea during last 10 months from Jan. 1, to Oct, 30, 1970. The incidence of presence or absence of sesamoid bones in each possible site and shape and partition were studied in 250 males and 200 females. The results are follow: 1. In hands, two sesamoids are present at metacarpophalangel joint of thumb in all and one at metacarpophalangeal joint of little finger in half, metacarpophalangeal joint of index, interphalangeal joint of thumb. Metacarpophalangeal joint of ring finger were other sites, in order of frequency. 2. In feet, two sesamoid are present at metacarpophalangeal joint of great toe in all, but the incidence at other sites are much lower comparison to hands and the sites are interphalangeal joint of great toe, metacarpophalangeal joint of 5th toe, metacarpophalangeal joint of 2nd toe, and metacarpophalangeal joint of 4th toe in order frequency. 3. In comparison with sexes, the incidence is a little greater in female at every site. 4. In general, the partition line of sesamoid bone is transverse, and fracture line of sesamoid is longitudinal. 5. In comparison with Europeans, the incidence of sesamoid bone at interphalangeal joint of thumb and great toe is about half, and at other sites, except metacaso phalangeal joint of thumb abd great toe, the incidence was smaller in each site.
[en] Advances in hand surgical techniques have improved the management of hand and wrist disorders. In order to render more meaningful interpretations, radiologists must be familiar with an increasing number of hand and wrist surgical procedures. This article is designed to present a spectrum of common and unusual hand and wirst procedures (excluding prostheses), as well as examples of some complications associated with these procedures. (author). 4 refs.; 16 figs
[en] We have used diffusion tensor tractography (DTT) for the evaluation of the somatotopic organization of corticospinal tracts (CSTs) in the posterior limb of the internal capsule (PLIC) and cerebral peduncle (CP). We imaged the brains of nine healthy right-handed subjects. We used a spin-echo echo-planar imaging (EPI) sequence with 12 diffusion- sensitized directions. DTT was calculated with an angular threshold of 35 degrees and a fractional anistropy (FA) threshold of 0.25. We determined the location of the CSTs by using two regions of interest (ROI) at expected areas of the pons and expected areas of the lateral half of the PLIC, in the left hemisphere of the brain. Fiber tracts crossing these two ROIs and the precentral gyrus (PCG) were defined as CSTs. Four new ROIs were then defined for the PCG, from the medial to lateral direction, as ROI 1 (medial) to ROI 4 (lateral). Finally, we defined each fiber tract of the CSTs between the pons and each ROI in the PCG by using two ROIs methods. In all subjects, the CSTs were organized along the long axis of the PLIC, and the hand fibers were located anterior to the foot fibers. The CSTs showed transverse orientation in the CP, and the hand fibers were located usually medial to the foot fibers. Corticospinal tracts are organized along the long axis of the PLIC and the horizontal direction of the CP
[en] Purpose: Heterotopic ossification (HO) about the elbow has been described after surgery, trauma, and burns. Even limited deposits can lead to significant functional deficits. Little data exist regarding outcomes of patients treated with radiation therapy (RT) after elbow surgery. We report here the Cleveland Clinic experience with single-fraction radiation following surgery to the elbow. The primary endpoint was the rate of new HO after RT. Secondary endpoints were range of motion, functional compromise, and toxicity. Methods and Materials: From May 1993 to July 2006, 36 patients underwent elbow surgery followed by single-fraction RT. Range of motion data were collected before and during surgery and at last follow-up. Radiographs were reviewed for persistent or new HO. Patient and treatment factors were analyzed for correlation with development of HO or functional compromise. Results: Median follow-up was 8.7 months, median age was 42 years, and 75% of patients were male. Twenty-six (72%) patients had HO prior to surgery. All patients had significant limitations in flexion/extension or pronation/supination at baseline. Thirty-one (86%) patients had prior elbow trauma, and 26 (72%) patients had prior surgery. RT was administered a median of 1 day postoperatively (range, 1-4 days). Thirty-four patients received 700 cGy, and 2 patients received 600 cGy. Three (8%) patients developed new HO after RT. All patients had improvement in range of motion from baseline. No patient or treatment factors were significantly associated with the development of HO or functional compromise. Conclusions: Single-fraction RT after surgery to the elbow is associated with favorable functional and radiographic outcomes.
[en] The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility, quality, and possible future implications of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the human hand and wrist at 7 T. Images of the left hand of a healthy volunteer were acquired with a 7- and a 1.5-T whole body system and comparatively analyzed. Axial and coronal two-dimensional gradient echo (GRE) images with inflow saturation, coronal 3D GRE images, and time-of-flight angiographies were obtained without averaging. Image details were related to the complex hand anatomy. With the 7-T protocols established in this study, high-quality and high-resolution images of the hand and wrist were obtained. In the 2D GRE images at 7 T, small anatomical structures of the hand were depicted in vivo with superior detail and resolution, compared to 1.5 T and published studies at lower field strength. Signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) were approximately five times higher at 7 T compared to 1.5 T. Additionally, thin 3D GRE images with good quality of the whole hand were obtained in a short acquisition time. Moreover, time-of-flight angiographies of the small hand arteries have been acquired without the application of contrast agents. Seven-tesla imaging of the hand can be used in vivo with ultra-high resolution and sufficient SNR. It allows for exact delineation of most anatomical structures including nerves, muscles, tendons, ligaments, cartilage, and blood vessels. (orig.)
[en] The author investigated the carpal bone and ephiphyses on the roentgenographic films. Several methods have been used in the study of carpal bones but I have calculated the numbers of ossification center. The subjects consisted of 259 boys and 239 girls from 3 to 13 years of age. The results are summarized as follows; 1. The number of ossification center were increased in aging both boys and girls. 2. Ossification tendency was more faster boys than girls and the difference of left and right hand were non significant . 3. The ossification of ephiphyses was completed in 4 years of age.
[en] With the development and refinement of hand and wrist surgery, wrist arthrography has become increasingly more important and requested. Hand surgeons desire radiologists who can perform appropriate diagnostic procedures to help elucidate causes of painful wrist. Wrist arthrography provides preoperative information leading to or confirming the diagnosis of certain wrist problems. Often, the diagnosis can not be demonstrated by means other than arthrography. 37 refs.; 15 figs
[en] The handedness of seventy-five persons without evidence of neurological disease, was assessed with a standardised test. An analysis of the CT scans of the same persons was performed to determine (1) presence and lateralisation of frontal and occipital 'petalia', (2) width of frontal and occipital lobes of each hemisphere, (3) direction of straight sinus deviation. Results suggest that handedness and cerebral asymmetries are independent variables. There were no significant differences between right-handers and non-right handers. Also there was no significant differences between strongly left-handed and ambidextrous individuals, nor were there differences between right-handers with or without family history of left-handedness. Irrespective of handedness, left occipital 'petalia' was more common than right (p<0.01), right frontal petalia was more common than left (p<0.01), and straight sinus deviation was more commonly toward the right. The study does not support the concept that cerebral 'symmetry' or 'reverse asymmetry' are associated with left-handedness or ambidexterity. The noted asymmetries are more likely to be direct correlates of cerebral language dominance, than of handedness. Outside forces acting on the bone may also contribute to the asymmetries. CT scan may be of value as a direct predictor of cerebral dominance. (author)