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[en] Equilibrium radionuclide ventriculography is an established modality to assess the left ventricular (LV) systolic function in several clinical situations. Diastolic parameters can also be extracted from this investigation. The aim of our study is to assess the diastolic function of the left ventricle in cases of idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy (IDCM) and ischemic cardiomyopathy, where systolic dysfunction has been considered of prime pathologic significance. We conducted a retrospective analysis of 89 patients who had undergone radionuclide ventriculography at our department with established diagnosis of IDCM in 59 patients and ischemic cardiomyopathy in remaining 30 patients. Peak filling rate (PFR) was assessed. The PFR was significantly lower in both patients with IDCM (median = 1.61 end diastolic volumes [EDV]/s) and ischemic cardiomyopathy (median = 2.005 EDV/s). 33% of the patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy and ejection fraction (EF) >45% had diastolic dysfunction while 25% of patients with IDCM and EF >45% had low PFR. Diastolic dysfunction can coexist in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy and even in patients with preserved LV EF. Routine evaluation of diastolic function in patients with heart failure can help in elucidation of pathogenesis and management of patients
[en] A 71-year-old patient with high-output cardiac failure was found to have an aneurysmal distal aorta with evidence of an arteriocaval fistula on ultrasound scanning. CT demonstrated an aneurysm of the distal aorta and right common iliac artery and an intraarterial digital subtraction angiogram confirmed an arteriocaval fistula. In view of the patient's cardiac failure and general condition an endovascular stent was considered. The right internal iliac artery was occluded with Tungsten coils prior to the insertion of a bifurcated stent-graft. This resulted in total occlusion of the aneurysm and obliteration of the arteriocaval fistula. To our knolwedge such a case has not been previously reported.
[en] Cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) has become a key investigative tool in patients with suspected myocarditis. However, the prognostic implications of T1 mapping, including extracellular volume (ECV) calculation, is less clear. Patients with suspected myocarditis who underwent CMR evaluation, including T1 mapping at our institution were included. CMR findings including late gadolinium enhancement (LGE), left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), native T1 mapping, and ECV calculation were associated with first major adverse cardiac events (MACE). MACE included a composite of all-cause death, heart failure hospitalization, heart transplantation, documented sustained ventricular arrhythmia, and recurrent myocarditis. One hundred seventy-nine patients with a mean age of 49 ± 15 years were identified. Seventy nine individuals (44%) were female. Mean LVEF was 48 ± 16. At a median follow-up of 4.1 [interquartile-range (IQR) 2.2–6.1] years, 22 (12%) patients experienced a MACE. Mean ECV (per 10%) was significantly associated with MACE (HR 2.09, 95% CI 1.07–4.08, p = 0.031). Presence of ECV ≥ 35% demonstrated significant univariable association with MACE (HR 3.3, 95% CI 1.43–7.97, p = 0.005) and such association was maintained when adjusted to LVEF (HR 3.42, 95% CI 1.42–7.94, p = 0.006). ECV ≥ 35% portended a greater than threefold increased hazards to MACE adjusted to LGE presence (HR 3.14, 95% CI 1.29–7.36, p = 0.012). In patients without LGE, ECV ≥ 35% portended a greater than sixfold increased hazards (HR 6.6, p = 0.010). In the multivariable model including age, LVEF and LGE size, only ECV ≥ 35% maintained its significant association with outcome. ECV calculation by CMR is a useful tool in the risk stratification of patients with clinically suspected myocarditis, incremental to LGE and LVEF.
[en] To study the association of ABO blood groups with ischaemic heart disease (IHD) in our setting. Analytic comparative study. Department of Cardiology, Mayo hospital, Lahore over a period of two years from January 2008 to December 2009. The study group included 907 patients of IHD. The distribution of ABO blood groups in IHD patients was compared with the control group of 907 non-IHD individuals. Data was analyzed using SPSS 16. Chi-square test for significance was used. P-value less than 0.05 was taken as significant. In this study, the following pattern of ABO blood groups was observed in IHD patients and non-IHD patients respectively : Blood group A 251 (27.67%) and 248 (27.34%); Blood group B 329 (36.27%) and 358 (39.47%); Blood group O 235 (25.90%) and 240 (24.46%); Blood group AB 92 (10.14%) and 61 (6.72%), P-value = 0.06. There is no association of ABO blood groups and ischaemic heart disease. (author)
[en] ST2 is a member of the interleukin-1 receptor family biomarker and circulating soluble ST2 concentrations are believed to reflect cardiovascular stress and fibrosis. Recent studies have demonstrated soluble ST2 to be a strong predictor of cardiovascular outcomes in both chronic and acute heart failure. It is a new biomarker that meets all required criteria for a useful biomarker. Of note, it adds information to natriuretic peptides (NPs) and some studies have shown it is even superior in terms of risk stratification. Since the introduction of NPs, this has been the most promising biomarker in the field of heart failure and might be particularly useful as therapy guide
[en] Objective: To compare a novel cardiovascular magnetic resonance technique for the assessment of left ventricular (LV) mechanical discoordination by characterizing the endocardial center motion (ECM) in short-axis cine MRI in healthy volunteers and heart failure patients with left bundle branch block (HF-LBBB). Approach: To evaluate ECM analysis as mechanical discoordination measure, we retrospectively compared spatial and temporal features of the ECM between a group of healthy volunteers (n = 14) and conduction defect patients (HF-LBBB, n = 31). We tracked the center of the endocardial borders on short-axis view MRI cine loops during the cardiac cycle. From the ECM trajectory we calculated the overall traveled distance, the enclosed area, the eccentricity of the trajectory, and the maximum traveled distance. The ECM can be visualized in spatial coordinates as well as by its temporal behavior. We evaluated the classification performance of these measures for LBBB detection. We also quantified the coherence of the ECM on the longitudinal direction by considering the variability of the ECM measures between different short-axis slices. Main results: Patients with LBBB showed significantly higher traveled distance (p < 0.0001), enclosed area (p < 0.002), eccentricity (p < 0.02), and peak displacement (p < 0.02) of the endocardial center. Patients with positive late gadolinium enhancement showed a higher variability of ECM measures across different slices (p < 0.05). Significance: ECM analysis is feasible and it allows the assessment of left ventricular mechanical discoordination. Differences in ECM measures permit one to distinguish between LBBB and healthy volunteers. (paper)