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[en] Cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) has become a key investigative tool in patients with suspected myocarditis. However, the prognostic implications of T1 mapping, including extracellular volume (ECV) calculation, is less clear. Patients with suspected myocarditis who underwent CMR evaluation, including T1 mapping at our institution were included. CMR findings including late gadolinium enhancement (LGE), left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), native T1 mapping, and ECV calculation were associated with first major adverse cardiac events (MACE). MACE included a composite of all-cause death, heart failure hospitalization, heart transplantation, documented sustained ventricular arrhythmia, and recurrent myocarditis. One hundred seventy-nine patients with a mean age of 49 ± 15 years were identified. Seventy nine individuals (44%) were female. Mean LVEF was 48 ± 16. At a median follow-up of 4.1 [interquartile-range (IQR) 2.2–6.1] years, 22 (12%) patients experienced a MACE. Mean ECV (per 10%) was significantly associated with MACE (HR 2.09, 95% CI 1.07–4.08, p = 0.031). Presence of ECV ≥ 35% demonstrated significant univariable association with MACE (HR 3.3, 95% CI 1.43–7.97, p = 0.005) and such association was maintained when adjusted to LVEF (HR 3.42, 95% CI 1.42–7.94, p = 0.006). ECV ≥ 35% portended a greater than threefold increased hazards to MACE adjusted to LGE presence (HR 3.14, 95% CI 1.29–7.36, p = 0.012). In patients without LGE, ECV ≥ 35% portended a greater than sixfold increased hazards (HR 6.6, p = 0.010). In the multivariable model including age, LVEF and LGE size, only ECV ≥ 35% maintained its significant association with outcome. ECV calculation by CMR is a useful tool in the risk stratification of patients with clinically suspected myocarditis, incremental to LGE and LVEF.
[en] Vortex formation time (VFT) is a continuous measure of the left ventricular (LV) filling that integrates all phases of diastole. This has been previously studied in patients with heart failure. This study examined the differences in VFT between healthy controls and elite athletes. We compared echocardiographic indices between elite male athletes (n = 41) and age-, weight- and sex-matched sedentary volunteers (n = 22). VFT was obtained using the validated formula: 4 × (1 − β)/π × α3 × LVEF, where β is the fraction of total transmitral diastolic stroke volume contributed by atrial contraction (assessed by time velocity integral of the mitral E- and A-waves) and α is the biplane end-diastolic volume (EDV)1/3 divided by mitral annular diameter during early diastole. Diastolic function was measured by the ratio of mitral peak velocity of early filling (E) to early diastolic mitral annular velocity (e′) (E/e′ ratio) and the ratio of E to mitral peak velocity of late filling (A) (E/A ratio). The heart rate was lower (63 ± 10 vs. 74 ± 6 beats per minute, p < 0.001) and the LV end diastolic diameter was larger in athletes as compared to controls (56 ± 3 vs. 50 ± 4 mm, p < 0.001). The VFT was lower in the sedentary group compared to athletes (3.1 ± 0.4 vs. 4.0 ± 0.8, p < 0.001). Similarly, E/e′ was higher in sedentary controls compared to athletes (7.5 ± 1.8 vs 4.2 ± 1.0, p < 0.001). Furthermore, there was a modest correlation between VFT and E/A (r = 0.47, p < 0.001) as well as E/e′ (r = − 0.33, p = 0.012). In conclusion, the VFT was elevated among elite athletes compared to healthy sedentary controls.
[en] We present the case of a female patient with arrhythmogenic dysplasia of the right ventricle who evolved to refractory heart failure, ascites, and peripheral edema. As a result, heart transplantation was performed. Subsequently, refractory ascites impaired the patient's respiratory function, resulting in prolonged mechanical ventilation. She was successfully treated with transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPSS) placement, which allowed satisfactory weaning of ventilatory support.
PurposeCardiac dysfunction risk associated with intravenous trastuzumab (H IV) treatment may differ in real-world practice versus randomized trials. We investigated cardiac events in patients with HER2-positive early breast cancer (EBC) treated with H IV as adjuvant therapy in routine practice.
MethodsThe observational study of cardiac events in patients with HER2-positive EBC treated with Herceptin (OHERA; NCT01152606) enrolled patients with stage I–IIIb disease eligible for H IV in the adjuvant setting per the European Summary of Product Characteristics (SmPC). Primary outcomes were symptomatic congestive heart failure incidence (CHF; New York Heart Association class II–IV) and cardiac death. Patient visits/assessments were per local practice.
Results3733 Patients received ≥ 1 H IV dose per local practice; 88.9% received H IV for > 300 days (median follow-up: ~ 5 years). Prior to disease recurrence (if any), symptomatic CHF occurred in 106 patients (2.8%); 6 (0.2%) cardiac deaths occurred (5 in patients with cardiac disease history). Median time to symptomatic CHF onset was 5.7 months (95% CI 5.3–6.5); 77/106 (72.6%) patients with symptomatic CHF achieved resolution. CHF incidence was higher in patients ≥ 65 years, and those with pre-existing cardiac conditions, hypertension, or left ventricular ejection fraction ≤ 55% at baseline.
ConclusionsOHERA is the largest prospective observational study to investigate the cardiac safety of H IV as adjuvant EBC therapy in a real-world setting. Symptomatic CHF and cardiac event incidences were consistent with randomized trials in this setting and baseline risk factors identified in the H IV European SmPC.
[en] Diastolic dysfunction (DD) and left ventricular remodeling (LVR) characterize patients at risk for heart failure (HF). To assess the prognostic impact of different diastolic function algorithms and a complex LVR classification (CRC) in asymptomatic subjects with preserved ejection fraction (EF) at risk for HF. We analyzed 1923 asymptomatic patients (male 43%; age 57, 33–76 years) with at least one cardiovascular risk factor and preserved (> 50%) EF. We used three algorithms for LV diastolic function assessment (Paulus et al. in Eur Heart J 28(20):2539–2550, 2007; Nagueh et al. in J Am Soc Echocardiogr 22(2):107–133, 2009, Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging 17(12):1321–1360, 2016), and two algorithms for LVR (classic and CRC). We considered a composite end-point: cardiac death and hospitalization for HF. The highest presence of DD was diagnosed by Nagueh 2009 (211, 11%), while the prevalence according to Nagueh 2016 (63 patients, 3.2%) turned out to be the lowest (p < 0.001 vs the other algorithms). According to CRC, 780 (48.6%) patients had normal or physiologic hypertrophy, 298 (15.5%) concentric remodeling, 85 (4.4%) eccentric remodeling, 294 (15.3%) concentric hypertrophy, 39 (2%) mixed hypertrophy, 80 (4.1%) dilated hypertrophy, 73 (3.7%) eccentric hypertrophy and 294 (15.3%) were unclassifiable. After 39-month follow-up (261 events, 13.6%), Cox-regression (adjusted for age, gender, history of stable ischemic heart disease, classic remodeling classification) identified CRC (p = 0.01) and Nagueh 2016 (p < 0.001) as independent predictors of end-point. The coexistence of an adverse LVR by CRC and DD by Nagueh 2016 was associated with the worst prognosis. A concurrent structural (CRC) and functional (Nagueh Op. Cit) analysis improves prognostic stratification in asymptomatic subjects at risk for HF with preserved EF.
[en] The cardiac function by radiocargiogram before and after the oral administration of isossorbide dinitrate in 20 patients with congestive heart failure is studied, including the meantime of pulmonary circulation, the meantime of cardiac cycle, cardiac debit and the dejection fraction of left ventricle. (author)
[en] For patients with asymptomatic mitral regurgitation (MR), the criteria identifying the groups at higher-risk and their clinical outcome are still uncertain. Therefore, in these patients, optimal time of surgery remains controversial. The purpose of this study was to compare left atrial (LA) strain to other echocardiographic left ventricular (LV) and LA parameters for the prediction of cardiovascular outcomes in patients with moderate asymptomatic MR. We enrolled 395 patients with primary degenerative moderate asymptomatic MR. Exclusion criteria were: history of atrial fibrillation, myocardial infarction, heart failure, cardiac surgery or heart transplantation, severe MR, mitral valve surgery during follow-up. Patients were prospectively followed for 3.5 ± 1.6 years for the development of cardiovascular events i.e. atrial fibrillation, stroke/transient ischaemic attack, acute heart failure, cardiovascular death. Of 276 patients (mean age 66 ± 8 years) who met eligibility criteria, 108 patients had 141 new events. Patients who developed cardiovascular events presented reduced global peak atrial longitudinal strain (PALS), reduced LA emptying fraction, larger LA volume indexed and lower LV strain at baseline (p < 0.0001). With receiving operating characteristics (ROC) curve analysis, global PALS < 35% showed the greatest predictive performance (AUC global PALS: 0.87). Bland–Altman analysis demonstrated good intra- and interobserver agreement with small bias and Kaplan–Meier analysis showed a graded association between PALS and event-free-survival rates. Speckle tracking imaging could provide a useful index, global PALS, to estimate LA function in asymptomatic moderate MR in order to optimize timing of surgery before the development of irreversible myocardial dysfunction.
[en] A 22 years old male patient is admitted for a syncope episode. An electrocardiogram shows a Wolff-Parkinson-White pattern and signs of auricular overload with left ventricular hypertrophy and complete auriculoventricular block. The transthoracic echocardiogram is compatible with non-obstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. An electrophysiological study is carried out, finding pre-excitation through an accessory way and infra-His auriculoventricular block. An ablation is performed and a bicameral pacemaker is implanted
[en] An acardiac twin is a severely malformed monochorionic twin fetus that lacks most organs, particularly a heart. It grows during pregnancy, because it is perfused by its developmentally normal co-twin (called the pump twin) via a set of placental arterioarterial and venovenous anastomoses. The pump twin dies intrauterine or neonatally in about 50% of the cases due to congestive heart failure, polyhydramnios and prematurity. Because the pathophysiology of this pregnancy is currently incompletely understood, we modified our previous haemodynamic model of monochorionic twins connected by placental vascular anastomoses to include the analysis of acardiac twin pregnancies. We incorporated the fetoplacental circulation as a resistance circuit and used the fetal umbilical flow that perfuses the body to define fetal growth, rather than the placental flow as done previously. Using this modified model, we predicted that the pump twin has excess blood volume and increased mean arterial blood pressure compared to those in the acardiac twin. Placental perfusion of the acardiac twin is significantly reduced compared to normal, as a consequence of an increased venous pressure, possibly implying reduced acardiac placental growth. In conclusion, the haemodynamic analysis may contribute to an increased knowledge of the pathophysiologic consequences of an acardiac body mass for the pump twin. (note)