Results 1 - 10 of 370
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[en] The Carnot-like heat engines are classified into three types (normal-, sub- and, super-dissipative) according to relations between the minimum irreversible entropy production in the 'isothermal' processes and the time for completing those processes. The efficiencies at maximum power of normal-, sub- and super-dissipative Carnot-like heat engines are proved to be bounded between ηC/2 and ηC/(2 − ηC), ηC/2 and ηC, 0 and ηC/(2 − ηC), respectively. These bounds are also shared by linear, sub- and super-linear irreversible Carnot-like engines [Tu and Wang, Europhys. Lett. 98 (2012) 40001] although the dissipative engines and the irreversible ones are inequivalent to each other. (general)
[en] The Carnot, Diesel, Otto, and Brayton power cycles are reconsidered endoreversibly in finite time thermodynamics (FTT). In particular, the thermal efficiency of these standard power cycles is compared to the well-known results in classical thermodynamics. The present analysis based on FTT modelling shows that a reduction in both the maximum and minimum temperatures of the cycle causes the thermal efficiency to increase. This is antithetical to the existing trend in the classical references. Under the assumption of endoreversibility, the relation between the efficiencies is also changed to , which is again very different from the corresponding classical results. The present results benefit a better understanding of the important role of irreversibility on heat engines in classical thermodynamics. (paper)
[en] In 2005, Van den Broeck introduced a linear irreversible heat engine described by the Onsager relation (Van den Broeck C 2005 Phys. Rev. Lett. 95 190602). Its efficiency at maximum power can reach the Curzon–Ahlborn efficiency under the strong-coupling condition. Further studies reveal that a compressor-based heat engine is approximately a strongly coupled linear irreversible heat engine. In this paper, we demonstrate that a macroscopic thermoelectric engine is a moderately or weakly coupled linear irreversible heat engine. This explains why a macroscopic thermoelectric engine is less efficient than a compressor-based heat engine for same relative temperature differences of heat reservoirs. (paper)
[en] Quantum heat engines produce work using quantum matter as their working substance. We studied adiabatic and isochoric processes and defined the general force according to quantum system. The processes and general force are used to evaluate a quantum Otto engine based on multiple-state of one dimensional box system and calculate the efficiency. As a result, the efficiency depends on the ratio of initial and final width of system under adiabatic processes
[en] Recent evidence suggests that quantum effects may have functional importance in biological light-harvesting systems. Along with delocalized electronic excitations, it is now suspected that quantum coherent interactions with certain near-resonant vibrations may contribute to light-harvesting performance. However, the actual quantum advantage offered by such coherent vibrational interactions has not yet been established. We investigate a quantum design principle, whereby coherent exchange of single energy quanta between electronic and vibrational degrees of freedom can enhance a light-harvesting system’s power above what is possible by thermal mechanisms alone. We present a prototype quantum heat engine which cleanly illustrates this quantum design principle and quantifies its quantum advantage using thermodynamic measures of performance. We also demonstrate the principle’s relevance in parameter regimes connected to natural light-harvesting structures
[en] For an understanding of a heat engine working in the microscopic scale, it is often necessary to estimate the amount of reversible work extracted by isothermal expansion of the quantum gas used as its working substance. We consider an engine with a movable wall, modeled as an infinite square well with a delta peak inside. By solving the resulting one-dimensional Schr¨odinger equation, we obtain the energy levels and the thermodynamic potentials. Our result shows how quantum tunneling degrades the engine by decreasing the amount of reversible work during the isothermal expansion.
[en] The maximum power processes of multi-source endoreversible engines with stationary temperature reservoirs are investigated. We prove that the optimal solution is always time independent with a single hot and a cold engine contact temperature. The heat reservoirs fall into three groups: the hot reservoirs which are connected at all times for heat delivery, the cold reservoirs which are connected at all times for heat drain, and possibly a group of reservoirs at intermediate temperatures which are unused. This phenomenon is demonstrated for a three-source system. We find that for a commonly used class of heat transfer functions, including Newtonian, Fourier, and radiative heat transport, the efficiencies at maximum power are the same as for two-reservoir engines with appropriately chosen properties
[en] In this paper, optimization of the power output of an internally irreversible heat engine is considered for finite capacitance rates of the external fluid streams. The method of Lagrange multipliers is used to solve for working fluid temperatures which yield maximum power. Analytical expressions for the maximum power and the cycle efficiency at miximum power are obtained. The effects of irreversibility and economics on the performance of a heat engine are investigated. A relationship between the maximum power point and economically optimum design is identified. It is demonstrated that, with certain reasonable economic assumptions, the maximum power point of a heat engine corresponds to a point of minimum life-cycle costs
[en] The second law of thermodynamics has been proven by many facts in classical world. Is there any new property of it in quantum world? In this paper, we calculate the change of entropy in T.D. Kieu's model for quantum heat engine (QHE) and prove the broad validity of the second law of thermodynamics. It is shown that the entropy of the quantum heat engine neither decreases in a whole cycle, nor decreases in either stage of the cycle. The second law of thermodynamics still holds in this QHE model. Moreover, although the modified quantum heat engine is capable of extracting more work, its efficiency does not improve at all. It is neither beyond the efficiency of T.D. Kieu's initial model, nor greater than the reversible Carnot efficiency.
[en] We derive the exact equality, referred to as the fluctuation relation for heat engines (FRHE), that relates statistics of heat extracted from one of the two heat baths and the work per one cycle of a heat engine operation. Carnot's inequality of classical thermodynamics follows as a direct consequence of the FRHE. (paper)