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[en] The optimum performance and fin length of a rectangular profile annular fin are presented using a variations separation method. For fixed fin height, the optimum fin length and efficiency are arbitrarily defined as those for which the heat loss is in the range between 90% and 99% of the maximum heat loss. The maximum heat loss, the maximum effectiveness, the minimum fin resistance, the optimum fin length and the optimum efficiency are presented as a function of the inside fluid convection characteristic number, fin base thickness, fin height and ambient convection characteristic number. One of the results shows that the optimum fin length decreases almost linearly with the increase of the fin base thickness
[en] Local photothermal excitation of absorbing sample provides spatial and temporal temperature distribution inside this sample and its neighbouring medium. Optical, thermal and geometrical characteristics (thickness, presence of a defect...) modify surface temperature evolution. The realization of an optical instrument using mirage effect, sensitive and accurate, has came out of two industrial applications of non destructive evaluation: - automatic set-up for absolute measurement of thermal losses on concentrical pipes interface.- set up for quantitative measurement of optical absorption losses on multi coated laser mirrors. To obtain images and compensate acquisition slowness due to investigated thermal phenomenons, a synchronous integration signal process from a multi detector, is described. Experimental set-up using mirage effect detected by a linear CCD reading sensor is realized on this principle. Some examples prove feasibility of this parallel measurement along an excitation line. At last, high frequency parallel synchronous detection with sequential cut-out demodulation was tested and succeeded with a 50 kHz optical signal. (author)
[fr]L'excitation photothermique locale d'un echantillon absorbant engendre, une distribution spatiale et temporelle de sa temperature interne et un milieu avoisinant. Les caracteristiques optiques, thermiques et geometriques (epaisseur, presence de defauts) influencent l'evolution de sa temperature de surface. La realisation d'un capteur optique a effet mirage sensible et fidele a debouche sur deux applications industrielles de controle non destructif: - banc automatise de mesure absolue des pertes thermiques a l'interface de deux tubes concentriques. - banc de mesure par etalonnage, des pertes optiques par absorption sur des miroirs de laser. Pour obtenir des images et pour pallier a la lenteur d'acquisition propre aux phenomenes thermiques etudies, un procede d'integration synchrone des signaux issus d'un detecteur multiple est decrit. Un dispositif experimental a effet mirage equipe d'une barrette de photodiodes a lecture par transfert de charges, est realise sur ce principe. Quelques exemples prouvent la faisabilite de cette mesure parallele, suivant une ligne d'excitation. Enfin, un systeme de detection synchrone parallele a haute frequence, demodule par decoupage sequentiel de la sonde a ete teste avec des signaux a 50 kHz
[en] Optimum values of fin performance and dimensions for an annular fin with a rectangular profile and a pipe with variable inner radius are determined by using a variable separation method. The range of ambient convection characteristic number that results in optimum heat loss is listed. The optimum heat loss, corresponding optimum fin effectiveness, fin length, and fin height are presented as a function of the inner radius of the pipe, inner fluid convection characteristic number, fin volume, and ambient convection characteristic number. One of the results shows that the optimum heat loss, fin effectiveness and fin length increase linearly with the inner radius of the pipe when both the fin volume and fin-base radius are fixed
[en] Variable emittance radiators can be used in a thermal management system in space because their total emittance changes depending on the temperature of the system. When the temperature of the system decreased, the emittance also decreased so as to minimize the heat loss to the environment. In contrast, when the temperature of the system increased, the emittance also increased such that radiation cooling could occur. Thermo chromic materials, whose emittance is a function of the temperature, are often used in variable emittance radiators because no additional parts are needed. In this study, we fabricated a variable-emittance coating by using a sol-gel method based on LSO (L a1-xSrxMnO3) and experimentally characterized the emittance change with respect to temperature. Furthermore, we also examined the stability of LSO film in space environments by exposing it to extremely low pressure and temperature
[en] We experimentally investigated lifted propane jet flames diluted with nitrogen to obtain flame-stability maps based on heat-loss-induced self-excitation. We found that heat-loss-induced self-excitations are caused by conductive heat loss from premixed flame branches to trailing diffusion flames as well as soot radiation. The conductive-heat-loss-induced self-excitation at frequencies less than 0.1 Hz is explained well by a suggested mechanism, whereas the oscillation of the soot region induces a self-excitation of lift-off height of the order of 0.1 Hz. The suggested mechanism is also verified from additive experiments in a room at constant temperature and humidity. The heat-loss-induced self-excitation is explained by the Strouhal numbers as a function of the relevant parameters
[en] The results of modeling the thermal characteristics of microsystems are presented and mutual thermal influence of the elements depending on the type of construction has been evaluated. (paper)
[en] High-temperature superconducting (HTS) rotating machines always require an electric current of from several hundreds to several thousand amperes to be led from outside into cold region of the field coil. Heat losses through the current leads then assume tremendous importance. Consequently, it is necessary to acquire optimal design for the leads which would achieve minimum heat loss during operation of machines for a given electrical current. In this paper, conduction cooled current lead type of 10 MW-Class HTS rotating machine will be chosen, a conceptual design will be discussed and performed relied on the least heat lost estimation between conventional metal lead and partially HTS lead. In addition, steady-state thermal characteristic of each one also is considered and illustrated.
[en] Since superconducting wires have no resistance, electromagnets based on the superconducting wires produce no resistive heating with DC current as long as the current does not exceed the critical current of the wire. However, unlike resistive wires, superconducting wires exhibit AC heat loss. Embedding fine superconducting filaments inside copper matrix can reduce this AC loss to an acceptable level and opens the way to AC-capable superconducting coils. Here, we introduce an easy and accurate method to measure AC heat loss from sample superconducting coils by measuring changes in the rate of gas helium outflow from the liquid helium dewar in which the sample coil is placed. This method provides accurate information on total heat loss of a superconducting coil without any size limit, as long as the coil can fit inside the liquid helium dewar. With this method, we have evaluated AC heat loss of two superconducting solenoids, a 180-turn solid NbTi wire with 0.127 mm diameter (NbTi coil) and a 100-turn filamented wire with 1.4 mm diameter where 7 NbTi filaments were embedded in a copper matrix with copper to NbTi ratio of 6.7:1 (NbTi-Cu coil). Both coils were wound on 15 mm-diameter G-10 epoxy tubes. The AC heat losses of the NbTi and NbTi-Cu coils were evaluated as 53±4.7 μW/A2Hz cm3 and 0.67±0.16 μW/A2Hz cm3, respectively.
[en] It is shown that a discrepancy and incompatibility persist between basic physics and fusion-literature regarding the radiation losses from a thermonuclear plasma. Whereas the fusion-literature neglects the excitation or line radiation completely, according to basic physics it depends upon the prevailing conditions and cannot be neglected in general. Moreover, for a magnetized plasma, while the fusion-literature assumes a self-absorption or reabsorption of cyclotron or synchrotron radiation emitted by the electrons spiraling along the magnetic field, the basic physics does not allow any effective reabsorption of cyclotron or synchrotron radiation. As is demonstrated, fallacious assumptions and notions, which somehow or other crept into the fusion-literature, are responsible for this discrepancy. In the present work, the theory is corrected. On the grounds of basic physics, a complete energy balance of magnetized and non-magnetized plasmas is presented for pulsed, stationary and self-sustaining operations by taking into account the energy release by reactions of light nuclei as well as different kinds of diffusive (conduction) and radiative (bremsstrahlung, cyclotron or synchrotron radiation and excitation radiation) energy losses. Already the energy losses by radiation make the energy balance negative. Hence, a fusion reactor-an energy producing device-seems to be beyond the realms of realization. (orig.)
[en] In an earlier study of ocean heat content (OHC) we showed that Earth's empirically implied radiation imbalance has undergone abrupt changes. Other studies have identified additional such climate shifts since 1950. The shifts can be correlated with features in recently updated OHC data. The implied radiation imbalance may possibly alternate in sign at dates close to the climate shifts. The most recent shifts occurred during 2001–2002 and 2008–2009. The implied radiation imbalance between these dates, in the direction of ocean heat loss, was −0.03±0.06 W/m2, with a possible systematic error of [−0.00,+0.09] W/m2. -- Highlights: ► Ocean heat content (OHC) slope discontinuities match similar Earth climate features. ► OHC slopes between climate shifts give most of the implied radiation balance (IRI). ► IRI often alternates in sign at dates close to the climate shifts. ► IRI between climate shifts of 2001–2002 and 2008–2009 was −0.03±0.06 W/m2. ► Geothermal flux is relevant to analyses of radiation imbalance.