Results 1 - 10 of 1768
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[en] As pharmacophore hybridization has been used frequently in the discovery of new drugs, ursolic acid/glycyrrhetinic acid-uracil/thymine hybrids have been synthesized and evaluated their antiproliferative activity by the MTT assay. The results displayed that, the hybrids of glycyrrhetinic acid (7a–7b to 10a–10b) exhibited slightly better antiproliferative activity than that of ursolic acid hybrids (3a–3b to 6a–6b). Two single glycyrrhetinic acid-thymine hybrids (8a and 10a) possessed good antiproliferative activity against tested A549 cell line (IC50 = 10.7 and 18.3 µM, respectively). And three hybrids (3a, 5a, and 10b) exhibited about 80% inhibitory ratio against tested Hela cell line.
[en] Hollow poly(dopamine) (PDA) nanocapsules and yolk-structured PDA nanocomposites were prepared by an aqueous one-pot synthesis method utilizing zeolitic imidazolate framework-8 (ZIF-8) nanocrystals as a sacrificial template without any special etchant. The resulting PDA nanocapsules show negligible cytotoxicity in HeLa cells after incubation for 48 h at various doses, which implies their potential as candidates for practical applications in drug transport and targeting. (paper)
[en] In this study, twenty three 3,6-disubstituted 1,2,4-triazolo[3,4-b]-1,3,4-thiadiazole derivatives were synthesized and their antiproliferative activities in vitro were studied against SMMC-7721, HeLa, A549, and L929 by the CCK-8 assay. The bioassay results demonstrated that all tested compounds 8(a–w) exhibited antiproliferation with different degrees, and some compounds showed better effects than reference drug 5-fluorouracil. Among these screened compounds, compounds 8a, 8d, and 8l displayed significant antitumor activities in inhibiting SMMC-7721cell proliferation with IC50 values of 1.64, 1.74, and 1.61 µM, respectively. Compounds 8d and 8l were manifested highly effective biological activity versus HeLa cells with IC50 values of 2.23 and 2.84 µM, respectively. Compound 8l was found to have the highest antitumor potency against A549 cells with IC50 value of 2.67 µM. Furthermore, all compounds exhibited weaker cytotoxic effects than 5-fluorouracil on normal cell lines L929.
[en] Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is an emerged disease of swine characterized by negligible response of type I IFNs and viral persistence. We show that the PRRSV non-structural protein 1 (Nsp1) is the viral component responsible for modulation of IFN response. Nsp1 blocked dsRNA-induced IRF3 and IFN promoter activities. Nsp1 did not block phosphorylation and nuclear translocation of IRF3 but inhibited IRF3 association with CREB-binding protein (CBP) in the nucleus. While IRF3 was stable, CBP was degraded, and CBP degradation was proteasome-dependent, suggesting that CBP degradation is not due to the protease activity of Nsp1 but an intermediary is involved. Our data suggest that the Nsp1-mediated CBP degradation inhibits the recruitment of CBP for enhanceosome assembly, leading to the block of IFN response. CBP degradation is a novel strategy for viral evasion from the host response, and Nsp1 may form a new class of viral antagonists for IFN modulation.
[en] Highlights: ► SiRNAs conjugated with aromatic compounds (Ar-siRNAs) at 5′-sense strand were synthesized. ► Ar-siRNAs increased resistance against nuclease degradation. ► Ar-siRNAs were thermodynamically stable compared with the unmodified siRNA. ► High levels of cellular uptake and cytoplasmic localization were found. ► Strong gene-silencing efficacy was exhibited in the Ar-siRNAs. -- Abstract: Short interference RNA (siRNA) is a powerful tool for suppressing gene expression in mammalian cells. In this study, we focused on the development of siRNAs conjugated with aromatic compounds in order to improve the potency of RNAi and thus to overcome several problems with siRNAs, such as cellular delivery and nuclease stability. The siRNAs conjugated with phenyl, hydroxyphenyl, naphthyl, and pyrenyl derivatives showed strong resistance to nuclease degradation, and were thermodynamically stable compared with unmodified siRNA. A high level of membrane permeability in HeLa cells was also observed. Moreover, these siRNAs exhibited enhanced RNAi efficacy, which exceeded that of locked nucleic acid (LNA)-modified siRNAs, against exogenous Renilla luciferase in HeLa cells. In particular, abundant cytoplasmic localization and strong gene-silencing efficacy were found in the siRNAs conjugated with phenyl and hydroxyphenyl derivatives. The novel siRNAs conjugated with aromatic compounds are promising candidates for a new generation of modified siRNAs that can solve many of the problems associated with RNAi technology.
[en] Coxsackievirus B5 (CVB5), a human enterovirus of the family Picornaviridae, is a frequent cause of acute and chronic human diseases. The pathogenesis of enteroviral infections is not completely understood, and the fate of the CVB5-infected cell has a pivotal role in this process. We have investigated the CVB5-induced apoptosis of HeLa cells and found that it happens by the intrinsic pathway by a mechanism dependent on the ubiquitin-proteasome system, associated with nuclear aggregation of p53. Striking redistribution of both SUMO and UBC9 was noted at 4 h post-infection, simultaneously with a reduction in the levels of the ubiquitin-ligase HDM2. Taken together, these results suggest that CVB5 infection of HeLa cells elicit the intrinsic pathway of apoptosis by MDM2 degradation and p53 activation, destabilizing protein sumoylation, by a mechanism that is dependent on a functional ubiquitin-proteasome system.
[en] Highlights: • Caspase-2 and FAN forms a complex under non-apoptotic cell conditions. • In concurrence with FAN, caspase-2-suppression slows down cell migration. • Similar to FAN, caspase-2 RNAi deregulates IL-6 secretion and vesicular dynamics. • Ceramide production of untreated cells is not influenced by loss of caspase-2. Caspase-2 has been implicated in diverse cellular processes, and the identification of factors with which it interacts has steadily increased. In the present study, we report a direct interaction between caspase-2 and factor associated with neutral sphingomyelinase activation (FAN) using yeast two-hybrid screening and co-immunoprecipitation. Further, stable suppression of caspase-2 expression in HEK293T and HeLa cells enabled a systematic investigation of putative novel enzyme functionalities, especially with respect to ceramide production, cell migration, IL-6 production and vesicular homeostasis, all of which have been previously reported to be associated with FAN. Lipidomics excluded the involvement of caspase-2 in the generation of ceramide species, but caspase-2-dependent deregulation of IL-6 release, vesicular size and delayed cell relocation supported an association between caspase-2 and FAN. Collectively, these data identify a novel caspase-2-interacting factor, FAN, and expand the role for the enzyme in seemingly non-apoptotic cellular mechanisms.
[en] In this study, we reported that small glutamine-rich TPR-containing protein (SGT) interacted with not only Hsp90α but also Hsp90β. Confocal analysis showed that treatment of cells with Hsp90-specific inhibitor geldanamycin (GA) disrupted the interaction of SGT with Hsp90β and this contributed to the increase of nuclear localization of SGT in HeLa cells. The increased nuclear localization of SGT was further confirmed by the Western blotting in GA-treated HeLa cells and H1299 cells. In our previous study, SGT was found to be a new pro-apoptotic factor, so we wondered whether the sub-cellular localization of SGT was related with cell apoptosis. By confocal analysis we found that the nuclear import of SGT was significantly increased in STS-induced apoptotic HeLa cells, which implied that the sub-cellular localization of SGT was closely associated with Hsp90β and apoptosis
[en] Highlights: ► IQGAP1 interacts with Aurora-A through its RGCt domain. ► Overexpression of IQGAP1 prevents ubiquitination of Aurora-A. ► Overexpression of IQGAP1 enhances the protein stability of Aurora-A. ► Overexpression of IQGAP1 promotes the kinase activity of Aurora-A. -- Abstract: IQGAP1, a ubiquitously expressed scaffold protein, has been identified in a wide range of organisms. It participates in multiple aspects of cellular events by binding to and regulating numerous interacting proteins. In our present study, we identified a new IQGAP1 binding protein named Aurora-A which is an oncogenic protein and overexpressed in various types of human tumors. In vitro analysis with GST-Aurora-A fusion proteins showed a physical interaction between Aurora-A and IQGAP1. Moreover, the binding also occurred in HeLa cells as endogenous Aurora-A co-immunoprecipitated with IQGAP1 from the cell lysates. Overexpression of IQGAP1 resulted in an elevation of both expression and activity of Aurora-A kinase. Endogenous IQGAP1 knockdown by siRNA promoted Aurora-A degradation whereas IQGAP1 overexpression enhanced the stability of Aurora-A. Additionally, we documented that the IQGAP1-induced cell proliferation was suppressed by knocking down Aurora-A expression. Taken together, our results showed an unidentified relationship between Aurora-A and IQGAP1, and provided a new insight into the molecular mechanism by which IQGAP1 played a regulatory role in cancer.
[en] Highlights: • UCHL1 interacts with LC3 and inhibits autophagosome formation. • UCHL1 Parkinson mutant I93 M abolishes to suppress autophagosome formation. • UCHL1 inhibitors LDN-57444 and NSC632839 promote autophagosome formation in cells. Ubiquitination modification has been shown to play a key role in autophagy. Increasing studies reported the involvement of de-ubiquitinating enzymes (DUBs) in autophagy pathway. To systematically search how DUBs manipulate autophagy, we utilized a double fluorescence tagged LC3 stable HeLa cell line, and did a genome wide screen of 55 human DUBs which is about 60% coverage of the DUB family. We found a bunch of DUBs have impact on autophagy by either changing the LC3 puncta formation or the autophagy flux. One of them, Ubiquitin C-Terminal Hydrolase L1 (UCHL1) correlated to Parkinson's disease, strongly affects autophagy by inhibiting autophagosome formation. We found UCHL1 overexpression inhibits LC3 puncta formation and is dependent on its DUB activity. Knockdown of UCHL1 significantly promotes LC3 puncta formation. Further study revealed that UCHL1 may affect autophagy by interacting with LC3 but not other autophagy related proteins. Interestingly, a Parkinson's disease related mutant UCHL1 I93 M defects its DUB activity and can no longer inhibit autophagosome formation. We further screened 22 commercially available DUB inhibitors and found two potent UCHL1 inhibitors LDN-57444 (LDN) and NSC632839 (NSC), when treating cells, both strongly induce LC3 puncta formation. Taken together, our results indicated a new insight into the manner in which DUB regulates autophagy and provided potential drugs for the Parkinson's disease.