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[en] Recently, Chen and his team were active in the theoretical and practical study of a new heliostat for the use of solar energy. This work represents the first innovation in the area of heliostats after many years of little progress. The mathematical development of the tracking and concentration optics principles, and the practical implementation and demonstration of the technology, are both very interesting advances in this field. Many applications are possible for this technology such as generation of solar electricity and solar industrial process heat.
[en] In Central Receiver Systems (CRSs), thousands of heliostats track the sunrays and reflect beam radiation on to a receiver surface. The size of the reflected image and the extent of reflection from the heliostats are one of the important criteria that need to be taken into account while designing a receiver, since spillage losses may vary from 2 to 16% of the total losses. The present study aims to determine the size of an external cylindrical receiver, such that the rays reflected from all the heliostats in the field are intercepted. A dimensionless correlation with respect to tower height and receiver size (diameter and height) as a function of heliostat size and its position is discussed in the paper. This correlation could be used as a first-order approximation to estimate the receiver dimensions. When applied to the Ivanpah Solar Electricity Generating Station (ISEGS) plant, the correlation yields satisfactory estimation of receiver dimensions.
[en] The possible energy characteristics of the LSF (large solar furnace with a capacity 1000 kW) based on numerical calculations are analyzed. The technical characteristics of the LSF are presented. The energy characteristics of the total system with different inaccuracies of the reflecting surfaces, energy contributions of certain shelves and groups of heliostats, and the contributions of certain heliostats and shapes of their focal spot are determined. Empirical formulas are proposed to describe the obtained numerical results. The problem of implementing the possible energy modes of the LSF with and/or without the inclusion of certain shelves and groups of heliostats is analyzed. The problem of a change in the energy density distribution in the focal spot of the LSF during the day is considered.
[en] Several properties of the solar interior are determined with a very high accuracy, which in some cases is comparable to that achieved in the determination of the Newton constant GN. We find that the present uncertainty ΔGN/GN=±1.5x10-3 has significant effects on the profile of density and pressure, however, it has negligible influence on the solar properties which can be measured by means of helioseismology and 8B neutrinos. Our results do not support recent claims that observational solar data can be used to determine the value of GN with an accuracy of few part in 10-4. Present data cannot constrain GN to much better than 10-2
[en] In this paper, we report a non-imaging focusing heliostat with multi-faceted plane mirrors for the effective use of solar energy. The non-imaging heliostat demonstrates a new technology to track the sun radiation and then concentrating it onto a stationary receiver by a mere single reflection. Deviated from the conventional method, one of the rotation axes is reoriented in a way that can significantly reduce the number of motors. The feasibility of the new scheme has been proved by a 25-mirrors-heliostat in Universiti Technologi Malaysia (UTM) campus. (Author)
[en] This report describes a project by Science Applications International Corporation and its subcontractors Boeing/Rocketdyne and Bechtel Corp. to develop manufacturing technology for production of SAIC stretched membrane heliostats. The project consists of three phases, of which two are complete. This first phase had as its goals to identify and complete a detailed evaluation of manufacturing technology, process changes, and design enhancements to be pursued for near-term heliostat markets. In the second phase, the design of the SAIC stretched membrane heliostat was refined, manufacturing tooling for mirror facet and structural component fabrication was implemented, and four proof-of-concept/test heliostats were produced and installed in three locations. The proposed plan for Phase III calls for improvements in production tooling to enhance product quality and prepare increased production capacity. This project is part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Solar Manufacturing Technology Program (SolMaT)
[en] This paper reports the revolutionary solar engine system in Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM). The solar engine is a single cylinder stirling engine driven by solar thermal energy. A first prototype solar engine has been built and demonstrated. A new-concept non-imaging focusing heliostat and a recently invented optical receiver are used in the demonstration. Second generation of prototype solar engine is described briefly. In this paper, the solar engine system development is reported. Measurement for the first prototype engine speed, temperature and specifications are presented. The benefits and potential applications for the future solar engine system, especially for the electricity generating aspect are discussed. (Author)
[en] The assurance of perpetual perpendicular insolation of solar collector absorber surface may increase the insolation energy by ca 42-45 %. A consequence of the increase in the energy production may be the reduction of the solar collectors surface area. For the large scale solar collector field conception is advantageous to build collector sections with several collectors in one heliostat. For the conception of the solar collector field with heliostat collectors is important to make a regular identification of space parameters of all parts of the solar system field. The placement of the heliostats is a basic condition for the optimal insolation conditions of heliostat solar collectors field. (authors)
[en] Highlights: • The HFLCAL method is used to find the flux distribution of individual heliostats. • An optimization algorithm is developed based on the principles of genetic algorithm. • The objective is to minimize the standard deviation of flux density distribution. • The optimization algorithm finds which heliostats should aim at which point. • By using the new algorithm the maximum flux is reduced by an order of magnitude. - Abstract: Temperature distribution on the receiver surface of a solar power tower plant is of great importance. High temperature gradients may lead to local hot spots and consequently failure of the receiver. The temperature distribution can be controlled by defining several aiming points on the receiver surface and adjusting the heliostats accordingly. In this paper, a new optimization algorithm which works based on the principles of genetic algorithm is developed to find the optimal flux distribution on the receiver surface. The objective is to minimize the standard deviation of the flux density distribution by changing the aiming points of individual heliostats. Flux distribution of each heliostat is found by using the HFLCAL model , which is validated against experimental data. The results show that after employing the new algorithm the maximum flux density is reduced by an order of magnitude. The effects of number of aiming points and size of the aiming surface on the flux density distribution are investigated in detail
[en] In this work, the current version of the satellite-based HELIOSAT method and ground-based linear Ångström–Prescott type relations are used in combination. The first approach is based on the use of a correlation between daily bright sunshine hours (s) and cloud index (n). In the second approach a new correlation is proposed between daily solar irradiation and daily data of s and n which is based on a physical parameterization. The performances of the proposed two combined models are tested against conventional methods. We test the use of obtained correlation coefficients for nearby locations. Our results show that the use of sunshine duration together with the cloud index is quite satisfactory in the estimation of daily horizontal global solar irradiation. We propose to use the new approaches to estimate daily global irradiation when the bright sunshine hours data is available for the location of interest, provided that some regression coefficients are determined using the data of a nearby station. In addition, if surface data for a close location does not exist then it is recommended to use satellite models like HELIOSAT or the new approaches instead the Ångström type models. - Highlights: • Satellite imagery together with surface measurements in solar radiation estimation. • The new coupled and conventional models (satellite and ground-based) are analyzed. • New models result in highly accurate estimation of daily global solar irradiation