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[en] Glypican-3(GPC3) has been implicated in tumor development and progression for several years. However, the prognostic significance of GPC3 expression in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is controversial. We performed a meta-analysis of available studies to assess whether GPC3 can be used as a prognostic factor in patients with HCC. We searched PubMed and Ovid EBM Reviews databases and evaluated the reference list of relevant articles for studies that assessed the prognostic relevance of GPC3 in patients with HCC. Meta-analysis was performed using hazard ratio (HR) or odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) as effect measures. A meta-analysis of eight studies included 1070 patients was carried out to evaluate the association between GPC3 and overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) in HCC patients. The relation between GPC3 and tumor pathological features was also assessed. Our analysis results indicated that high GPC3 expression predicted poor OS (HR: 1.96, 95% CI: 1.51–2.55) and DFS (HR: 1.99, 95% CI: 1.57-2.51) of patients with HCC. GPC3 overexpression was significantly associated with high tumor grade (OR: 3.30, 95% CI: 2.04–5.33), late TNM stage (OR: 2.26, 95% CI: 1.00–5.12), and the presence of vascular invasion (OR: 2.43, 95% CI: 1.23–4.82). GPC3 overexpression indicates a poor prognosis for patients with HCC, and it may also have predictive potential for HCC invasion and metastasis
[en] This study aimed to evaluate the effect of stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SABR) after incomplete transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients. The study enrolled 178 HCC patients initially treated with TACE between 2006 and 2011. Patients were included if they had Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer stage 0 or A, ≤3 nodules with a total sum of longest diameter ≤10 cm, Child-Turcotte-Pugh score of ≤7, no major vessel invasion, and no extra-hepatic metastases. Twenty-four patients achieved a complete response to TACE (group 1). Among those with incomplete response, 47 patients received other curative treatments (group 2), 37 received SABR (group 3), and 70 received non-curative treatments (group 4). The 2–year overall survival (OS) rates for groups 1, 2, 3, and 4 were 88 %, 81 %, 73 %, and 54 %, respectively. The corresponding 5-year OS rates were 50 %, 58 %, 53 %, and 28 %, respectively. Patients treated with SABR after incomplete TACE had similar survival outcomes to those achieving complete response to TACE or receiving curative treatments. However, patients receiving non-curative treatments had significantly lower survival rates than the other groups. Therefore, if SABR was indicated at the initial diagnosis, it might be recommended after TACE failure
[en] To define the clinical target volume (CTV) for radiotherapy in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). A prospective study was conducted to histologically evaluate the presence and the distance of microscopic extension (ME) for resected HCC on the basis of examination of whole-mount preparations of carcinoma tissue sections. A total of 380 whole-mount slides prepared from tumor samples of 76 patients with HCC were examined. Patients with elevated pretreatment AFP levels exhibited higher risk of ME as compared to those with normal pretreatment AFP levels (93.9% vs. 69.8%, P < 0.01). ME positivity was 16.7% for Grade 1, 79.1% for Grade 2, and 96.3% for Grade 3 tumors (P < 0.01). The mean distance of ME was 0.0 ± 0.1 mm (range 0-0.2 mm) for Grade 1, 0.9 ± 0.9 mm (range 0-4.5 mm) for Grade 2, and 1.9 ± 1.9 mm (range 0-8.0 mm) for Grade 3 tumors (P < 0.01). The CTV margins for tumor Grades 1, 2, and 3 HCC, are recommended to be 0.2 mm, 4.5 mm, and 8.0 mm beyond the gross tumor margin, respectively, to account for possible ME of the tumors in all patients
[en] Transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) offers a survival benefit to patients with intermediate hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). A widely accepted TACE regimen includes administration of doxorubicin-oil emulsion followed by gelatine sponge-conventional TACE. Recently, a drug-eluting bead (DC Bead) has been developed to enhance tumor drug delivery and reduce systemic availability. This randomized trial compares conventional TACE (cTACE) with TACE with DC Bead for the treatment of cirrhotic patients with HCC. Two hundred twelve patients with Child-Pugh A/B cirrhosis and large and/or multinodular, unresectable, N0, M0 HCCs were randomized to receive TACE with DC Bead loaded with doxorubicin or cTACE with doxorubicin. Randomization was stratified according to Child-Pugh status (A/B), performance status (ECOG 0/1), bilobar disease (yes/no), and prior curative treatment (yes/no). The primary endpoint was tumor response (EASL) at 6 months following independent, blinded review of MRI studies. The drug-eluting bead group showed higher rates of complete response, objective response, and disease control compared with the cTACE group (27% vs. 22%, 52% vs. 44%, and 63% vs. 52%, respectively). The hypothesis of superiority was not met (one-sided P = 0.11). However, patients with Child-Pugh B, ECOG 1, bilobar disease, and recurrent disease showed a significant increase in objective response (P = 0.038) compared to cTACE. DC Bead was associated with improved tolerability, with a significant reduction in serious liver toxicity (P < 0.001) and a significantly lower rate of doxorubicin-related side effects (P = 0.0001). TACE with DC Bead and doxorubicin is safe and effective in the treatment of HCC and offers a benefit to patients with more advanced disease.
[en] Objective: The main aim of our case report is to show the possibility how to prolong survival of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma after radiological progression with sorafenib treatment. Case report: It reports the disease of 65 year old patient with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in the field of liver cirrhosis toxic - alcohol liver disease etiology: T2N0M0, Child-Pugh B7, AFP 5.29, BCLC-C, performance status (PS) 0 WHO. Ortho topic liver transplantation and other resection was not indicated. Indicating seminar was held on the use of sorafenib. This was administered almost 5 years with adjusting the dose as was tolerated. Despite radiological evidence of disease progression in the liver, we continued therapy and achieved better survival. Conclusion: Patients with moderately advanced HCC are a heterogeneous group, who differ the characteristics of the tumor and liver function. Systemic treatment with sorafenib improves survival in patients where it is not possible locoregional treatment (TACE), or as continued treatment if there is disease progression in good performance status patients. (author)
[en] A 74-year-old man presented with hepatocellular carcinoma extending into the main portal vein. Two bare Wallstents were placed to maintain portal vein patency. The main portal vein remained patent for 6 months after treatment. No serious complications were observed during or after treatment.
[en] Our aim was to assess the efficacy and tolerability of drug-eluting beads-transarterial chemoembolization (DEB-TACE) in the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), evaluating the response to the treatment after 1, 6, 12, and 24 months with multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) comparing European Association for the study of the Liver (EASL) and modified Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (mRECIST) criteria. We enrolled 154 patients with uni- or multifocal HCC who underwent a DEB-TACE. A total of 278 HCC nodules were treated. CT follow-up was performed at 1, 6, 12, and 24 months after the procedure according to the EASL and RECIST criteria evaluating overall target and target nodule response. We also analyzed the shrinking of nodules in relation to response to treatment. A total of 278 nodules of HCC underwent TACE by using DC-Beads: At 24, months complete response was similar for EASL and RECIST criteria (112 vs. 121 nodules) with optimal accordance between methods and readers with k = 0.9. Partial Response resulted significantly different among the two methods within the first month, otherwise was similar after 24-month follow-up. Similar results in both methods were found for nodules classified as Stable Disease (P > 0.05). Progressive Disease results were similar in both the groups according to both the classification criteria without any significant difference (P > 0.05). Our study confirmed that EASL and mRECIST criteria are both effective methods for patient follow-up, however with some technical differences
[en] A 59-year-old woman was suspected of having meningitis. A lumbar puncture was performed for CSF analysis; however, a traumatic tap induced hemorrhage in the subarachnoid space and formed a hematoma from the L3 to the S1 level. This resulted in a paraparesis. Myelography showed a band-like filling defect and a subsequent computed tomography (CT) myelogram showed a soft tissue mass in the intradural space. T1 weighted magnetic resonance imaging revealed a lesion with moderate hyperintensity within the dural sac, hinting that the lesion was a hematoma. Laminectomy was performed, and the hematoma was entirely removed. (orig.)