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[en] This article explores the challenges associated with governing the competing objectives of energy security and environmental sustainability. It examines this challenge in the context of Hong Kong and the city's recent fuel mix consultation. Based on the results of ten interviews with public and private stakeholders in the Hong Kong power sector, the findings analyze the perceptions of stakeholders with respect to the tension between sustainability and core pillars of energy security — accessibility, affordability and reliability. It concludes with four policy recommendations for managing and potentially moving beyond the energy dilemma, including suggestions for locally feasible sustainable energy, long-term pathways to decarbonization, policy changes on tariffs, incentives and pricing, and collaboratively co-governing clean energy. - Highlights: • Contests between energy security and environmental sustainability are a key challenge for energy governance. • Hong Kong fuel mix consultation shows tension between energy security and environmental sustainability. • Clearest pathway to low-carbon power sector is via unpopular cooperation with mainland China. • Recommended that city make new efforts to realize new pathways to low carbon power sector reform.
[en] Hong Kong's first day under Chinese rule, 1 July 1997, was not exactly auspicious. A celebratory parade organized by the Chinese was washed out by torrential rain, and the grand finale of a firework display, described as 'a bold statement..... embodying confidence in the future of Hong Kong' fizzled out when one of the firework barges caught fire. The omens are not necessarily good for the territory's oil industry either. (author)
[en] It has long been realized that there is a widening gap between the progress of optimization theory and optimization practice in structural engineering. This paper presents an efficient computer-based optimization technique for the design of practical tall building in Hong Kong. The optimization methodology is based on a rigorously derived Optimality Criteria (OC) algorithm. The optimization technique developed is applicable for the design of modern tall building in which structural steel, reinforced concrete and a combination of hybrid mixed or composite steel and concrete may be considered as construction materials. The effectiveness of the optimization technique has been demonstrated through a number of actual tall building project in Hong Kong, including the world's tallest building currently being under design. The preliminary optimization of this remarkable tallest building in Hong Kong will be presented in this paper
[en] The document reproduces the text of a letter dated 19 June 1997 received by the Director General of the IAEA from the Resident Representative of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, referring to the Revised Supplementary Agreement Concerning the Provision of Technical Assistance by the International Atomic Energy Agency to the Government of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland on behalf of the Government of Hong Kong done at Vienna on 4 February 1983
[en] The document reproduces the text of a letter dated 19 June 1997 received by the Director General of the IAEA from the Resident Representative of the People's Republic of China, regarding the continued participation of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China in the activities of the IAEA as from 1 July 1997
[en] Two nuclear power stations on the coast of southern China are situated some 50 kilometers to the northeast of Hong Kong. Although the stations are far away from Hong Kong, the construction and operation of the nuclear power stations have generated public anxiety locally, in particular, after the Chernobyl accident in 1986. A comprehensive contingency plan which takes into account such concerns of the public has been implemented in Hong Kong. This plan not only aims to ensure a quick and timely response to mitigate the health impact of any accidental release but also targets to re-assure the public that the territory is not contaminated when appropriate. This paper describes the principal elements of the nuclear contingency plan in Hong Kong, namely, an extensive environmental radiation monitoring programme and a proactive public communication programme
[en] Surface and core sediments collected from six fish farms in Hong Kong and from reference sites were investigated for the enrichment and sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Moderately high ΣPAH16 levels (123-947 ng g-1, mean: 450 ng g-1) were found in the surface aquaculture sediments. In comparison with the sediments from the reference sites, the average enrichment percentage of total organic carbon (TOC) and PAHs in surface sediments were 21.4 and 43.8%, respectively, and in the core sediments, 24.6 and 73.7%, respectively. Mathematical source apportionment analyses (i.e. isomer ratios, hierarchical cluster analysis, principal components analysis with multiple linear regression analysis) suggested a higher percentage of petrogenic sources in aquaculture sediments. The fish feeds might be the main source of the enriched PAHs in the aquaculture sediments. To our knowledge, this is the first study showing that PAHs in aquaculture sediments could be attributed to human aquaculture activities. - PAHs were enriched in mariculture sediments of Hong Kong due to aquaculture activities.
[en] A number of properties related to radon have been surveyed for dwellings in Hong Kong. These properties include the radon concentration, the total potential alpha energy concentration of radon daughters, the equilibrium factor and the fraction of unattached radon daughters. These properties seem to have no obvious relationship with the geographical or geological factor, but are significantly different for sites with air conditioning and those sites with electric fans or natural ventilation only. From the data collected in the present investigation, the mean annual equivalent dose values due to the inhalation of indoor air in dwellings have been calculated. Considering the difference between the radon properties of dwellings and offices in Hong Kong, an estimation of the average indoor radon dose has been made. Finally, considering other sources of natural radiation, a rough estimate was obtained of the total annual equivalent dose of about 2.7 mSv for a person living in Hong Kong, which is lower than a previous estimate but higher than the typical values commonly used. (author)
[en] The incidence of hypothyroidism in 1396 Chinese patients in Hong Kong treated for hyperthyroidism with 131I therapy is presented using the life-table method of analysis. One year after therapy only 6% of patients were hypothyroid, but the subsequent annual incidence was 3.5%, emphasising the need for life-time surveillance of these patients. A higher incidence of subsequent hypothyroidism was found in patients with diffuse compared with nodular glands and small (less than 40 g) compared with larger glands. Previous medical or surgical treatment, the total dose or number of doses of 131I, the severity of thyrotoxicosis and the age of the patient did not influence the rate of onset of hypothyroidism. The data suggest that in order to minimise the occurrence of hypothyroidism a lower dose of 131I per gram of thyroid mass should be used for patients with small diffuse glands. (author)