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[en] A Dutch public utility (Obragas) introduces a new way to supply gas for their household clients in Helmond, Netherlands: the gas wall socket. The use of gas wall sockets must prevent the decrease of the market share for natural gas compared to the market share of electricity for households
[en] A lack of access to modern energy impacts health and welfare and impedes development for billions of people. Growing concern about these impacts has mobilized the international community to set new targets for universal modern energy access. However, analyses exploring pathways to achieve these targets and quantifying the potential costs and benefits are limited. Here, we use two modelling frameworks to analyse investments and consequences of achieving total rural electrification and universal access to clean-combusting cooking fuels and stoves by 2030. Our analysis indicates that these targets can be achieved with additional investment of US$200565–86 billion per year until 2030 combined with dedicated policies. Only a combination of policies that lowers costs for modern cooking fuels and stoves, along with more rapid electrification, can enable the realization of these goals. Our results demonstrate the critical importance of accounting for varying demands and affordability across heterogeneous household groups in both analysis and policy setting. While the investments required are significant, improved access to modern cooking fuels alone can avert between 0.6 and 1.8 million premature deaths annually in 2030 and enhance wellbeing substantially. (letter)
[en] There is an increasing impetus to transform the U.S transportation sector and transition away from the uncertainties of oil supply. One of the most viable current solutions is the adoption of electric vehicles (EVs). These vehicles allow for a transportation system that would be flexible in its fuel demands. However, utilities may need to address questions such as distribution constraints, electricity tariffs and incentives and public charging locations before large scale electric vehicle adoption can be realized. In this study, the effect of electric vehicles on households in Indianapolis is examined. A four-step traffic flow model is used to characterize the usage characteristics of vehicles in the Indianapolis metropolitan area. This data is then used to simulate EV usage patterns which can be used to determine household electricity usage characteristics. These results are differentiated by the zones with which the households are associated. Economic costs are then calculated for the individual households. Finally, possible public charging locations are examined. - Highlights: ► Traffic flow modeling is used to accurately characterize EV usage in Indianapolis. ► EV usage patterns are simulated to determine household electricity usage patterns. ► Economic costs are calculated for the households for electric vehicles. ► Possible public charging locations are examined.
[en] Previous study found out that Chinese household have a higher awareness of environmental protection but less positive initiative to protect the environment. With the increasing Chinese income, higher education, and changing environment state, public awareness and behavior on environment protection are changing. This paper tries to find out the current public willingness to participate in environment protection, by using the latest data from China Household Finance Survey (CHFS) which is investigated in 2017 that covered 31 provinces with a sample of more than 40 thousand households. Besides, logit regression model is adopted to find out the impact of pollution and household demographic on environment protection behavior. The results show that around 71.6% of surveyed households have willingness to pay for the environment protection. Rural residents and higher educated individuals are more likely to participate in environment protection. However, things are different if they face different degrees of pollution. Results can be explained with China’s current economic situation and would have some implications for future study on China’s public willingness to pay for the environment.
[en] The pricing mechanism for energy is not in line with the international standards, because the energy prices are controlled by the government partly or completely in China. Chinese government made a lot of efforts to improve the pricing mechanism for energy. The relations between Chinese energy prices and energy consumption are the foundations to reform the mechanism. In this paper, the relations between Chinese energy consumption and energy prices are researched by cointegration equations, impulse response functions, granger causality and variance decomposition. The cointegration relations among energy prices, energy consumption and economic outputs show that higher energy price will decrease energy consumption in Chinese industrial sectors but will not reduce the economic output in the long run. The cointegration relation between energy price and household energy consumption shows that higher energy price will decrease household energy consumption in the long run and increase it in the short run. So Chinese government should deepen the reform of pricing mechanism for energy, and increase the energy prices reasonably to save energy. (author)
[en] Electricity consumption throughout the world has been rapidly increasing in past decades. However, the current investment trend is showing signs of power supply inadequacy. Hence, many countries have embraced energy efficiency as a partial solution to looming energy problems. In reality, many people are not replacing their household appliances with energy-efficient ones. The use of energy efficient products in Malaysia is still at unsatisfactory level. Hence, this study aims at closing the gap by applying the moral extension of the theory of planned behavior (TPB) to examine the determinants of consumers’ purchase intention for energy-efficient household appliances. A survey using self-administered questionnaires was administered to 210 consumers in Penang, Malaysia, and Partial Least Square (PLS) regression was used to test the hypotheses. The findings show that consumer’ more-favorable attitudes toward energy-efficient household appliances and perceived behavioral control significantly influence consumers’ purchase intention for such products. This study also proved the extension of moral norm in the classic theory of planned behavior to be a significant predictor for consumers’ purchase intention. Policy implications like creating awareness for Energy Star Labelling, enhancing Minimum Energy Performance Standard (MEPS) and the role of education in nurturing younger generations are addressed. - Highlights: • We studied the purchase intention for energy efficient household appliances. • This study was tested using survey data collected from consumers in Penang, Malaysia. • Attitudes, perceived behavioral control and moral norm affect purchase intention. • Subjective norm, environmental concern, environmental knowledge is not significantly related to purchase intention.
[en] Economic theory about foreign trade and competition as well as empirical studies of relevance are not making evident that industries in general should pay lower environmental taxes than other kind of consumers. Consequently, economic theory cannot justify the present Danish energy tax regime where households are required to pay high energy taxes whereas industries are allowed to pay low energy taxes. On the contrary, it is more likely that reduced industry taxes will result in reduced welfare to society, lower income and lower employment as compared to a scenario of equal energy taxes. Theory can justify, however, a stepwise introduction of green taxes in order to make industries and markets adapt to the new regulatory framework. Moreover, some theoretical contributions argue that under certain circumstances one could point to a need for protecting certain kinds of industries (e.g. industries employing unskilled labour), but an exclusive tax reduction given to all industries is not supported by economic theory. By using the GTAP model we have calculated the welfare effect of levelling Danish energy taxes so households and industries have to pay equal energy taxes. The GTAP model has a good and international reputation for being designed to analyse international trade and competitiveness. We find that levelling the Danish energy taxes will increase welfare in Denmark by 1.3% equivalent to DKK 8 billion. The Danish energy tax reform, however, will cause an increase in CO2 emissions in neighbouring countries. The calculation does not consider the influence of the EU market for tradable CO2 permits introduced as from January 2005. (au)