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[en] 1988 Spitak Earthquake is obtained. It is shown that besides crust aftershocks, mantle aftershocks are also observed. Most of the Spitak Earthquake aftershocks are situated in the depth of 0-90 km, certain cases are observed with the depth of 150 km. The coordinates of the hypocenter of the main shock are northern latitude φ=40.867°, and eastern longitude λ=44.199°, estimated depth is H= 5.0 km
[en] The majority of original seismograms recorded at the very beginning of instrumental seismology (the early 1900s) did not survive till present. However, a number of books, bulletins, and catalogs were published including the seismogram reproductions of some, particularly interesting earthquakes. In case these reproductions contain the time and amplitude scales, they can be successfully analyzed the same way as the original records. Information about the Atushi (Kashgar) earthquake, which occurred on August 22, 1902, is very limited. We could not find any original seismograms for this earthquake, but 12 seismograms from 6 seismic stations were printed as example records in different books. These data in combination with macroseismic observations and different bulletins information published for this earthquake were used to determine the source parameters of the earthquake. The earthquake epicenter was relocated at 39.87° N and 76.42° E with the hypocenter depth of about 18 km. We could further determine magnitudes mB = 7.7 ± 0.3, MS = 7.8 ± 0.4, MW = 7.7 ± 0.3 and the focal mechanism of the earthquake with strike/dip/rake − 260°± 20/30°± 10/90°± 10. This study confirms that the earthquake likely had a smaller magnitude than previously reported (M8.3). The focal mechanism indicates dominant thrust faulting, which is in a good agreement with presumably responsible Tuotegongbaizi-Aerpaleike northward dipping thrust fault kinematic, described in previous studies.
[en] The Hokkaido Eastern Iburi Earthquake (M = 6.7) occurred on Sep. 6, 2018 in the southern part of Central Hokkaido, Japan. Since Paleogene, this region has experienced the dextral oblique transpression between the Eurasia and North American (Okhotsk) Plates and the subsequent collision between the Northeast Japan Arc and the Kuril Arc due to the oblique subduction of the Pacific Plate. This earthquake occurred beneath the foreland fold-and-thrust belt of the Hidaka Collision zone developed by the collision process, and is characterized by its deep focal depth (~ 37 km) and complicated rupture process. The reanalyses of controlled source seismic data collected in the 1998–2000 Hokkaido Transect Project revealed the detailed structure beneath the fold-and-thrust belt, and its relationship with the aftershock activity of this earthquake. Our reflection processing using the CRS/MDRS stacking method imaged for the first time the lower crust and uppermost mantle structures of the Northeast Japan Arc underthrust beneath a thick (~ 5–10 km) sedimentary package of the fold-and-thrust belt. Based on the analysis of the refraction/wide-angle reflection data, the total thickness of this Northeast Japan Arc crust is only 16–22 km. The Moho is at depths of 26–28 km in the source region of the Hokkaido Eastern Iburi Earthquake. Our hypocenter determination using a 3D structure model shows that most of the aftershocks are distributed in a depth range of 7–45 km with steep geometry facing to the east. The seismic activity is quite low within the thick sediments of the fold–thrust belt, from which we find no indication on the relationship of this event with the shallow (< 10–15 km) and rather flat active faults developed in the fold-and-thrust belt. On the other hand, a number of aftershocks are distributed below the Moho. This high activity may be caused by the cold crust delaminated from the Kuril Arc side by the arc–arc collision, which prevents the thermal circulation and cools the forearc uppermost mantle to generate an environment more favorable for brittle fracture. .
[en] On November 15, 2014, an Mw4.3 earthquake occurred 2 km west of Mihoub village, 60 km SE of Algiers. In this study, we retrieve the relative source-time functions of the mainshock and largest aftershock (Mw3.9) for rupture analysis using the empirical Green’s function method. The two events are nearly colocated with a smaller aftershock (Mw3.5), which is treated as the empirical Green’s function. Moreover, these three events have similar focal mechanisms, suggesting that deconvolution is well posed in this case. The three events were recorded by nine stations of the Algerian permanent network. We use mainly P-wave data. The focal mechanism solution shows dominant reverse faulting with a strong strike-slip component. The two nodal planes align almost E-W, dipping to the south, and NNE-SSW, dipping to the NW, respectively; the fault and auxiliary planes cannot be resolved from hypocenter locations alone because too few aftershocks were recorded by the permanent network. The results show unilateral rupture propagation to the ENE and complex rupture with multiple episodes for the mainshock. The largest aftershock shows similar behavior with slightly less pronounced directivity at some sites. The rupture directivity for the mainshock is estimated at about N66° E, and the rupture velocity is Vr = 0.66β. The E-W nodal plane of the best-fit focal mechanism is the preferred fault plane because it best agrees with the directivity direction and is consistent with the E-W faulting that dominates in the region.
[en] For faster and more robust ray tracing in 1-D velocity models and also due to the lack of reliable 3-D models, most seismological centers use 1-D models for routine earthquake locations. In this study, as solution to the coupled hypocenter-velocity problem, we compute a regional P-wave velocity model for southern Iran that can be used for routine earthquake location and also a reference initial model for 3-D seismic tomography. The inversion process was based on travel time data from local earthquakes paired reports obtained by merging the catalogues of Iranian Seismic Center (IRSC, 6422 events) and by the Broadband Iranian National Seismic Network (BIN, 4333 events) for southern Iran in the period 2006 through July 2017. After cleaning the data set from large individual reading errors and by identifying event reports from both networks belonging to same earthquake (a process called event pairing), we obtained a data set of 1115 well-locatable events with a total number of 24,606 P-wave observations. This data set was used to calculate a regional minimum 1-D model for southern Iran as result of an extensive model search by trial-and-error process including several dozens of inversions. Significantly different from previous models, we find a smoothly increasing P-velocity by depth with velocities of 5.8 km/s at shallow and velocities of 6.4 km/s at deepest crustal levels. For well-locatable events, location uncertainties are estimated in the order of ± 3 km for epicenter and double this uncertainty for hypocentral depth. The use of the minimum 1-D model with appropriate station delays in routine hypocenter location processing will yield a high-quality seismic catalogue with consistent uncertainty estimates across the region and it will also allow detection of outlier observations. Based on the two catalogues by IRSC and BIN and using the minimum 1-D model and station delays for all stations in the region, we established a new combined earthquake catalogue for southern Iran. While the general distribution of the seismicity corresponds well with that of the two individual catalogues by IRSC and BIN, the new catalogue significantly enhances the correlation of seismicity with the regional fault systems within and between the major crustal blocks that as an assembly build this continental region. Furthermore, the unified seismic catalogue and the minimum 1-D model resulting from this study provide important ingredients for seismic hazard studies.
[en] The Hokkaido Eastern Iburi earthquake (MJMA = 6.7) occurred on September 6, 2018, in the Hokkaido corner region where the Kurile and northeastern Japan island arcs meet. We relocated aftershocks of this intraplate earthquake immediately after the main shock by using data from a permanent local seismic network and found that aftershock depths were concentrated from 20 to 40 km, which is extraordinarily deep compared with other shallow intraplate earthquakes in the inland area of Honshu and Kyushu, Japan. Further, we found that the aftershock area consists of three segments. The first segment is located in the northern part of the aftershock area, the second segment lies in the southern part, and the third segment forms a stepover between the other two segments. The hypocenter of the main shock, from which the rupture initiated, is located on the stepover segment. The centroid moment tensor solution for the main shock indicates a reverse faulting, whereas the focal mechanism solution determined by using the first-motion polarity of the P wave indicates strike-slip faulting. To explain this discrepancy qualitatively, we present a model in which the rupture started as a small strike-slip fault in the stepover segment of the aftershock area, followed by two large reverse faulting ruptures in the northern and southern segments. .
[en] We consider the results of a comparison of the two approaches to determine the coordinates of earthquake hypocenters. Various examples show that the determination of earthquakes hypocenters coordinates on the basis of minimizing the functional residuals hypocentral distances gives more accurate and consistent results comparedto the approach based on the minimization of the functional residuals of the travel time seismic waves
[en] Around the Ogasawara Islands, only a few seismic stations in the area can be used to determine the hypocenters of regional earthquakes; thus, hypocenter location precision tends to be low. To more precisely determine hypocenter locations, we deployed a temporary seismic observation network of pop-up ocean bottom seismometers around the Ogasawara Islands from July to October 2015. We identified a double seismic zone in the 70–200 km depth range associated with the subducting Pacific slab. The slab-normal distance between the two planes of the double seismic zone is about 30–35 km, similar to such distances observed along the Japan and Mariana trenches. Furthermore, we found unusual seismicity in the mantle wedge at 20–50 km depth beneath the Ogasawara trough that might be related to structure formed at the onset of the oceanic slab subduction. The hypocenters determined from the ocean bottom seismometer observation were horizontally separated by a few tens of kilometers from hypocenters published by the Seismological Bulletin of Japan. USGS locations (Preliminary Determination of Epicenters) seem to be offset westward about 30 km compared with the locations determined in this study. .
[en] Before the ML 6.6 Meinong earthquake in 2016, intermediate-term quiescence (Qi), foreshocks, and short-term quiescence (Qs) were extracted from a comprehensive earthquake catalog. In practice, these behaviors are thought to be the seismic indicators of an earthquake precursor, and their spatiotemporal characteristics may be associated with location, magnitude, and occurrence time of the following main shock. Hence, detailed examinations were carried out to derive the spatiotemporal characteristics of these meaningful seismic behaviors. First, the spatial range of the Qi that occurred for ~ 96 days was revealed in and around the Meinong earthquake. Second, a series of foreshocks was present for ~ 1 day, clustered at the southeastern end of the Meinong earthquake. Third, Qs was present for ~ 3 days and was pronounced after the foreshocks. Although these behaviors were recorded difficultly because the Qi was characterized by microseismicity at the lower cut-off magnitude, between ML 1.2 and 1.6, and most of the foreshocks were comprised of earthquakes with a magnitude lower than 1.8, they carried meaningful precursory indicators preceding the Meinong earthquake. These indicators provide the information of (1) the hypocenter, which was indicated by the area including the Qi, foreshocks, and Qs; (2) the magnitude, which could be associated to the spatial range of the Qi; (3) the asperity locations, which might be related to the areas of extraordinary low seismicity; and (4) a short-term warning leading of ~ 3 days, which could have been announced based on the occurrence of the Qs. Particularly, Qi also appeared before strong inland earthquakes so that Qi might be an anticipative phenomenon before a strong earthquake in Taiwan.
[en] Inland Tohoku has been recognized as under the WNW-ESE compressional stress state before the 2011 M9 Tohoku-Oki earthquake. Earthquakes that occurred there were characterized by reverse faulting with the compressional axis oriented in almost the WNW-ESE direction. The Tohoku-Oki earthquake reduced this WNW-ESE compressional stress and, therefore, should have suppressed the earthquake occurrence. However, several intensive earthquake sequences were triggered in inland Tohoku. In this study, we investigated the triggering mechanism of these remote earthquake sequences in the stress shadow based on the detailed distribution of stress orientations newly determined from pre-mainshock focal mechanism data. The spatial distribution of stress orientations shows that there exist some regions with anomalous stress fields even before the Tohoku-Oki earthquake on the spatial scale of a few tens of kilometers. This spatial heterogeneity in the stress field suggests that the differential stress magnitude in inland Tohoku is low (a few tens of MPa). Locations of the earthquake clusters tend to correspond to regions where the principal stress axis orientations of the pre-mainshock period are similar to those of the static stress change by the Tohoku-Oki earthquake. This observation suggests that these earthquake sequences were triggered by a local increase in differential stress due to the static stress change. However, a few swarm sequences occurred in central Tohoku with delays ranging from a few days to few weeks after the Tohoku-Oki earthquake despite the reduction in differential stress. These sequences have notable characteristics including upward migration of hypocenters. Such features are similar to the fluid-injection induced seismicity. The source regions of these swarms are located near the ancient caldera structures and major geological boundaries. The swarm activities were probably triggered by the upward fluid movement along such pre-existing structures. These observations demonstrate that information about the temporal evolutions of both stress and frictional strength is necessary to understand the triggering mechanism of earthquakes.