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[en] In this paper we prove the Marsden-Misiolek-Ortega-Perlmutter-Ratiu Stages Hypothesis, which is a sufficient condition for a general reduction by stages theorem. Our Lie-algebraic approach allows us to prove this conjecture in a general case (not only for semidirect products of groups with cocycle) and to simplify the proof of a general reduction by stages theorem (with some modifications). Bibliography: 8 titles
[en] In combining biomechanical investigations with microanatomical studies, the authors have found new evidence suggesting a mechanobiological link between the altered microstructural response of degenerate cartilage to load, and the way in which structural changes develop in the early osteoarthritic joint. This paper presents the data and background for a new hypothesis exploring the initiation and progression of mechanically-driven osteoarthritic processes.
[en] The morpheme nano in languages such as Swedish and English is a constituent of many words. This article linguistically analyses the meaning potential of nano by focusing on word use in a Swedish newspaper corpus comprising 2,564 articles (1.6 million words) covering a 22-year period (1988–2010). Close to 400 word forms having nano as a constituent have been identified and analyzed. The results suggest that nano covers a broad and heterogeneous conceptual field: (i) as a prefix of the SI system; (ii) in relation to the scientific activities of nanoscience and nanotechnology, including their sub-processes and actors; and (iii) in relation to objects. The identified meanings of nano, besides the standard definition (i.e. ‘billionth part’ in relation to SI units), are ‘operating at the nanometre level’ in relation to activities and their actors and ‘nanometre sized’ and ‘nanotechnological’ in relation to objects; in addition, the less precise and non-technical meaning ‘very small’ is identified. We discuss the implications of the findings for a hypothesis about media influence on public understanding of technology, suggesting that repeated findings in Europe and the USA of little self-reported understanding and knowledge of nanotechnology or nanoscience among the public make sense in light of the polysemy of nano reflected in its broad variety of verbal forms and usages.
[en] First we try to generalize the notion of a topological transitive or a topologically mixing system for quantum mechanical systems in a consistent way. Furthermore we compare these ergodic properties with the classical results. Finaly we deal with some aspects of nearly abelian systems and investigate some relations between these notions. 11 refs. (Author)