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[en] Highlights: • We constructed a fusion protein comprising ubiquitin and Rpn4-derived unstructured region. • The fusion ubiquitin retained its function of polyubiquitination of target proteins. • The fusion ubiquitin induced more efficient proteasomal target degradation than wild-type ubiquitin. Methods to induce proteasomal degradation of unwanted proteins are valuable in biomedical studies and thus receive increasing attention. For efficient degradation, the proteasome requires both a ubiquitin tag, which delivers substrates to the proteasome, and an unstructured region, where the proteasome engages the substrate for unfolding and degradation. We fused two degron components into a single molecule to create a fusion protein comprising ubiquitin and Rpn4-derived unstructured region. We demonstrated that the fusion protein retained its function to polyubiquitinate target proteins, thereby inducing more efficient proteasomal target degradation than wild-type ubiquitin in vitro and in cells. These results provide novel strategies for robust degradation enhancement of polyubiquitinated proteins.
[en] The present study aimed to investigate the influence of the host retinal microenvironment on cell migration and differentiation using Neuro2a (N2a) cells transduced with green fluorescent protein. N2a cells were transplanted into the vitreous cavities of developing mouse eyes (C57BL/6) on postnatal days 1, 5, and 10 (P1, 5, and 10). To analyze the effects of the host microenvironment on neural differentiation of N2a cells in vitro, cells were treated with a conditioned medium (CM) collected from retinal cells cultured at each developmental stage. We observed that numerous cells transplanted into P5 mice eyes migrated into all layers of the host retina, and the presence of processes indicated morphological differentiation. Some transplanted N2a cells expressed several neural markers. However, cells transplanted into the P1 and 10 mice eyes only proliferated within the vitreous cavity. Neurite length increased in N2a cells treated with CM collected from the cultured retinal cells from P5 and 10 mice, while western blotting revealed that the levels of proteins related to neural differentiation were not significantly altered in N2a cells treated with CM. We show that the migration and differentiation capacities of transplanted cells were differentially influenced by the microenvironment of the retinal postnatal ontogeny
[en] Highlights: • Gli-1 is present in aggregates near the nuclei of chick myoblasts and myotubes. • Gli-1 aggregates colocalized with gamma-tubulin positive-centrosomes. • Recombinant Shh added to muscle cells induced the nuclear translocation of Gli-1. • Gli-1 aggregates are storage sites for its rapid cellular redistribution. The Sonic Hedgehog signaling (Shh) pathway has been implicated in both proliferation of myoblast cells and terminal differentiation of muscle fibers, and contradictory results of these effects have been described. To clarify the role of Shh during myogenesis, we decided to study the effects of recombinant Shh and the distribution of Gli-1 during in vitro and in situ embryonic chick skeletal muscle differentiation at later stages of development. Gli-1 was found in small aggregates near the nucleus in mononucleated myoblasts and in multinucleated myotubes both in vitro and in situ chick muscle cells. Some Gli-1 aggregates colocalized with gamma-tubulin positive-centrosomes. Gli-1 was also found in striations and at the subsarcolemmal membrane in muscle fibers in situ. Recombinant Shh added to in vitro grown muscle cells induced the nuclear translocation of Gli-1, as well as an increase in the number of myoblasts and in the number of nuclei within myotubes. We suggest that Gli-1 aggregates observed in chick muscle cells near the nuclei of myoblasts and myotubes could be a storage site for the rapid cellular redistribution of Gli-1 upon specific signals during muscle differentiation.
[en] Objectives: To compare the in vitro activities of vancomycin and linezolid against methicillin resistant Staphyloccus aureus in our set up to help in formulating a better empirical treatment and reduce the emergence of vancomycin resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Methods: The study was conducted over a period of 6 months(July 1, 2009 - Dec 1, 2009). Fifty Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolated from the clinical isolates of Military Hospital Rawalpindi were subjected to the determination of Minimum inhibitory concentrations of linezolid and vancomycin using E-strips. Results: All the isolated organisms were uniformly susceptible to both the antibiotics. Vancomycin showed higher minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) as compared to linezolid MICs. Conclusion: This study suggests that linezolid and vancomycin have similar in vitro efficacy for methicillin resistant Staphyloccus aureus infections. (author)
[en] A methodological approach that permits, in a radioimmunoassay, the evaluation of rat insulin by using bovine insulin as reference is presented. As in general the technics for radioimmunoassay of different substances follow the same principles (competitive inhibition), we believe that the methodology presented here could be used for evaluation of other hormones when the adequated referential, of know biological activity, is not available. (Author)
[pt]Apresenta-se metodologia que torna possivel, em um radioimunoensaio, o uso de insulina bovina como referencial para avaliacao de insulina de rato. Como os radioimunoensaios utilizados para dosagem de diferentes substancias o mesmo principio (inibicao competitiva), acredita-se que a metodogologia apresentada possa ser utilizada tambem para avaliacao de outros hormonios, quando nao se dispuser do referencial adequado, de atividade biologica conhecida. (Autor)
[en] Glioblastoma (GBMs) is an aggressive type of brain tumour, driven by immature neural stem cell-like cells that promote tumour growth and underlie resistance to conventional therapy. The GBM stem cells (GSCs) can exist in quiescent or dormant states and infiltrate widely into surrounding brain tissues, currently incurable with only around one-year median survival. Innovative therapeutic strategies for GBMs are urgently needed. Here we explore functionalized graphene oxide (GO) to assess their value as delivery vehicles for GBM therapeutics. Interactions and cellular responses were assessed in vitro using both classic cell lines and patient derived GSCs. Association between the functionalised GO and established GBM cell lines (serum grown ‘non-stem’ cells) was strong and resulted in decreased cell viability, increased cell oxidative stress, and changes in lipids composition in a concentration-dependent manner. Responses were more moderate in GSCs and were only observed at highest functionalised GO concentrations. However, no significant toxicity was detected in brain astrocytes and endothelial cells. These results indicate selective toxicity to highly proliferative GBM cell lines and patient GSCs, with minimal toxicity to normal neural cells and brain tissue. We conclude that a novel class of GBM-targeting graphene-based nanocarriers could be useful delivery vehicles for GBM therapeutics. (paper)
[en] Different strategies have been proposed to target neoangiogenesis in gliomas, besides those targeting Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF). The chemokine Interleukin-8 (IL-8) has been shown to possess both tumorigenic and proangiogenic properties. Although different pathways of induction of IL-8 gene expression have been already elucidated, few data are available on its post-transcriptional regulation in gliomas. Here we investigated the role of the microRNA miR-93 on the expression levels of IL-8 and other pro-inflammatory genes by RT-qPCR and Bio-Plex analysis. We used different disease model systems, including clinical samples from glioma patients and two glioma cell lines, U251 and T98G. IL-8 and VEGF transcripts are highly expressed in low and high grade gliomas in respect to reference healthy brain; miR-93 expression is also increased and inversely correlated with transcription of IL-8 and VEGF genes. Computational analysis showed the presence of miR-93 consensus sequences in the 3′UTR region of both VEGF and IL-8 mRNAs, predicting possible interaction with miR-93 and suggesting a potential regulatory role of this microRNA. In vitro transfection with pre-miR-93 and antagomiR-93 inversely modulated VEGF and IL-8 gene expression and protein release when the glioma cell line U251 was considered. Similar data were obtained on IL-8 gene regulation in the other glioma cell line analyzed, T98G. The effect of pre-miR-93 and antagomiR-93 in U251 cells has been extended to the secretion of a panel of cytokines, chemokines and growth factors, which consolidated the concept of a role of miR-93 in IL-8 and VEGF gene expression and evidenced a potential regulatory role also for MCP-1 and PDGF (also involved in angiogenesis). In conclusion, our results suggest an increasing role of miR-93 in regulating the level of expression of several genes involved in the angiogenesis of gliomas. The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12885-015-1659-1) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users