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[en] African swine fever (ASF) is a highly lethal haemorrhagic disease of domestic pigs that may results in up to 100% mortality. Although, the disease was originally described in East Africa by Montgomery in 1921, it has subsequently been reported at epizootic scale in Central, Southern and more recently West Africa. Following an initial sporadic infection reported in 1973 which was subsequently eradicated, the recent waves of epizootics was first noticed in Nigeria around September 1997 but was confirmed in November 1997. The local government areas from Ogun and Lagos States closely bordering the previously infected Benin Republic confirmed index cases. Despite the early warning systems, it seemed the country was not well prepared for the infection and the disease reporting structure appeared deficient, hence the virus spread rapidly and the quick containment of the virus was unrealistic. In the first year of infection, a total of 125,000 pigs were lost at an estimated cost of $3.5 million. Since the time of these first outbreaks, the virus has continued to infect the country with waves of epizootics and as at the time of this report, it has been confirmed that 18 of the 36 states of the country has recorded infection with loss of an estimated one million pigs. Since a good surveillance system and rapid diagnosis of transboundary animal diseases (TAD) like ASF is key to the control and effective eradication of the virus, we carried out a nationwide epidemiological surveillance (serological and virological) in the country to determine the sero-prevalence of ASF in Nigeria, the strains of the virus currently circulating in Nigeria, and plan an effective strategies for the control and eradication of the virus through the understanding of the means and routes of spread of ASF in Nigeria. Specifically, collaborations were set-up with CISA/INIA, Spain and ILRI; the country was mapped, stratified sampling with cluster sampling within each stratum was used in farm site or slaughter slab/abattoir selection. A key factor in the selection of sites includes the main pig producing, marketing and consuming areas of the country. It must be understood that religious factors prevent close association with pigs in certain regions of Nigeria and as such, it was considered a futile exercise to expend or concentrate effort in such area in a bid to carry out surveillance for African swine fever. Sera and tissues (spleen, liver, kidney, lung and lymph nodes) were collected. Laboratory tests including i-ELISA and PCR were done. The results are shown in a table. Although work is still on going on the tissue samples, approximately 51% (70/137) of the tissue tested so far are positive. These results are similar to previous reports given in regional studies carried out in Nigeria. They indicated that since 1997, the ASF virus is still in circulation in Nigeria. It has been emphasised that no effective control of ASF exist without stamping out of all infected and in-contact animals. Movement of pigs within the country added to the re-circulation of the virus
[en] The authors have examined a method to detect infections using radiolabeled antibodies. Staphylococcal endocarditis was chosen as a model because it poses a common clinical diagnostic problem. The experiments demonstrate that biologically active antibodies may be extracted and efficiently labeled by a relatively simple process. This has the potential to make the specificity of the in vivo antigen-antibody reaction available through the use of autologously extracted, labeled γ-globulin
[en] Objective: To determine the susceptibility pattern of extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) producing Gram negative isolates from various clinical specimens. Study Design: Descriptive study. Place and Duration of Study: Microbiology Department, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Rawalpindi, from January 2008 to January 2009. Methodology: A total of 308 ESBL producing isolates from various clinical specimens sent to AFIP for culture and sensitivity were identified using standard microbiological techniques and tested for antimicrobial susceptibility. At the same time screening for ESBL production was also done. ESBL production was confirmed by combination disc synergy method. The susceptibility pattern of isolates was then recorded in frequency percentages. Results: Out of the 308 ESBL producing isolates more than 99% were susceptible to carbapenems, 84% to tazobactam/ piperacillin, 81% to sulbactam/cefoperazone, 12% to fluoroquinolones, 13% to cotrimoxazole, 59% to amikacin and 18% to gentamicin. Among the urinary isolates 49% were susceptible to Nitrofurontoin and only 5% to Pipemidic acid. Conclusion: Antibiotic choices in case of ESBL producing isolates are limited and at present only carbapenems can be regarded as treatment of choice. As empirical agents, beta-lactam/beta lactamase inhibitor combinations should be used cautiously for serious infections. Fluoroquinolones showed very poor efficacy. Amikacin can be used alternatively in such cases. Nitrofurantoin is still a good oral agent for treating UTI. (author)
[en] In this paper, stochastic effect on the spread of the infectious disease with saturated incidence rate and the special transfer from infectious is discussed. The threshold dynamics is explored for the case of relatively small noise. Our results show that large noise will cause the elimination of the disease, which will help suppress the spread of the disease.
[en] Periodontitis, a chronic infectious disease induced by microbial biofilm, is one of the most common diseases worldwide. Scaling and root planning (SRP) has always been recognized as the typical treatment. However, the therapeutic efficiency is often limited due to the intraoperative bleeding and the limitations of instruments. Non-thermal atmospheric plasma (NTP) appears to be a potential tool for periodontitis due to its promising biofilm degradation and decontamination effects. In this study, we investigated the role of NTP, as an adjuvant approach for the treatment of ligature-induced periodontitis in rats. Herein we showed that SRP or SRP-NTP application attenuated the periodontitis-induced alveolar bone loss, reflected by the increased BV/TV value and the decreased CEJ-AB distance, which might be related to the lower detection rate of periodontal pathogen in SRP and SRP-NTP groups. Besides, SRP-NTP rats showed less bone loss and lower CEJ-AB distance than that of SRP group at 30d post treatment, indicating a more comprehensive and long-lasting effect of SRP-NTP. A remarkable decrease of osteoclast number and lower expression of RANKL was also detected in SRP-NTP rats. In addition, expression of inflammatory-related cytokines such as TNF-α and IL-1β decreased significantly in SRP-NTP group, while IL-10 level increased substantially. These results together illustrated that a combination of SRP and NTP treatment was an effective way to prevent periodontitis progress, which reduced alveolar bone loss and promoted periodontium restoration in ligature-induced periodontitis rats. In conclusion, non-thermal plasma treatment may be considered as a feasible and effective supplementary approach to control periodontitis.
[en] Full text: The European Technology for Global Animal Health (ETPGAH) was established in December, 2004 with the objective of identifying the most critical issues that need to be addressed in order to control diseases in animals. The ETPGAH was funded by the European Commission and as required by the Commission, was led by industry. European stakeholders and International organisations participated in the work of the Platform and developed a Vision, Strategic Research Agenda (SRA) and an Action Plan. The Vision developed is as follows 'To facilitate and accelerate the development and distribution of the most effective tools for controlling animal diseases of major importance to Europe and the rest of the world, thereby improving human and animal health, food safety and quality, animal welfare, and market access, contributing to achieving the Millennium Development Goals'. The Vision foresees the speedier development of tools for disease control by focusing our research effort on the most important gaps in the most important diseases. These may be emerging, established or zoonotic diseases. By delivering better disease control, animal health and welfare is protected, human health benefits in terms of zoonotic disease control but human health also benefits from food security, safety and quality. Indeed, poverty and famine may be averted. The stakeholders to the ETPGAH recognise that diseases do not respect borders and took a global perspective in the knowledge that a global reduction in disease is to the benefit of everybody. In developing the SRA, the stakeholders identified 6 major themes: 1. Prioritisation of Animal Diseases. 2. Gap Analysis. 3. Fundamental Research. 4. Enabling Factors. 5. Regulatory Issues. 6. Global Perspective. It was recognised that we need to prioritise our effort and focus on finding new disease control tools by collaborative research on a limited number of critical targets. By this mechanism, we can attempt to make greatest progress in the least amount of time. Critical to this concept is the need to identify and prioritise the most important gaps in our ability to control the critical diseases. Having identified our targets, it is then vital that we have the fundamental research capacity - infrastructure and people to carry out the necessary research. Establishing our research capability necessitates the creation of a database with the relevant information with gaps then being addressed. Along with filling gaps, efficiency can also be improved by avoiding unnecessary capacity development. Enabling factors such as quality assurance, intellectual property rights and facilitation of technology transfer are critical components in moving from basic research to the development of a tool that can be used to fight a disease. Financial support at critical points in the development chain is also vital. Too often, projects are dropped because intellectual property rights have not been secured and nobody is willing to invest perhaps Euro 100 million in taking the project from the laboratory bench through development and into the market. The correct regulatory environment is vital to stimulate innovation. A balance needs to be reached between protecting human and animal health from the risks associated with a product versus the wish to eliminate all hazard. In addition, regulation needs to be focused on the needs of the veterinary sector, which may be quite different to those of the human sector. From a global perspective, it is in the interests of everybody to reduce the global burden of disease. It may be much more beneficial to tackle disease at its source. This approach facilitates cooperation across the globe including capacity building. Having explored the broad areas that need attention in the SRA, the Action Plan was then developed and published in July, 2007 identifying the actions - research or information gathering - that need to be carried out in order to deliver the SRA. The Action Plan follows the themes identified in the SRA with 30 activities outlined. For each activity, the objectives deliverables and tasks are stated. The purpose of the ETPGAH is to now oversee the delivery of the Action Plan. Each activity needs to be progressed and funding is an important factor. Funding from the European Commission is important as it stimulates collaborative research. However, nation states are the main source of research funding with more than 90% of funding coming from this source. As such, the ETPGAH has stimulated the creation of 'Mirror Groups' and seven have been formed to date. The purpose of a Mirror Group is to communicate the content of the Action Plan to a national level and also to encourage the use of national funding to deliver some of the activities from the Action Plan best suited to that country. Progress has been encouraging to date with many activities being funded by the European Commission and with the European Research Area Network (ERA-Net) progressing many of the information gathering exercises. (author)
[en] Mycobacterium fortuitum, a rapidly growing mycobacterium, is ubiquitous in nature. The organism was considered to be a harmless saprophyte but now there have been several reports from different parts of the world wherein it has been incriminated in a variety of human infections. We report a culture positive case of surgical site infection caused by Mycobacterium fortuitum, who responded well to the treatment. (author)
[en] To ascertain and compare microbial growth pattern in blood culture of septic neonates who were either totally breast or formula fed. Study Design: Cross sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: The Children's Hospital Lahore, Pakistan from Feb 2012 to Dec 2012. Methodology: All clinically septic neonates, who were either exclusively breast fed or formula fed, were enrolled in the study. They were divided into two groups and studied for the type of organisms grown on blood culture. Group-A were breast fed and group-B were formula fed. Neonates who were blood culture negative or had growth of multiple organisms or had incomplete data or who died / left against medical advice before completing the required data or babies receiving milk feeding from multiple sources or no feeding at all were excluded. BACTEC technique was used for obtaining bacterial growth. SPSS version 19 was used for statistical analysis. Results: A total of 380 clinically septic neonates were enrolled. Each group consisted of 190 subjects. Incidence of culture positive sepsis in breast fed and in formula fed was 6.7% and 15.7% respectively (p-value = 0.0001). Overall, gram-negative organisms constituted the majority (16.1%). Thirty seven percent cultures grew coagulase negative Staphylococcus (CoNS) followed by Klebsiella spp (23.4%). In group A, gram-negative and gram-positive organisms were equally distributed whilst in group-B, gram-negative organisms were three times more frequent than gram-positive organisms. Predominant pattern of organisms was also different in the two groups. In group-A, CoNS was predominant while in group-B, Klebsiella spp. was most frequent. Conclusion: Culture positive sepsis is more than two times greater in formula fed babies and is caused predominantly by gram-negative organisms whilst in breast fed babies, CoNS is the commonest organism. (author)