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[en] The economic and infrastructural disparities between the rural and urban communities of most developing countries in general and in terms of energy access in particular are quite glaring. China presents a good example of a developing country that has successfully embarked on rural electrification projects over the last few decades and achieved a great feat of almost 100% electrification rate (. World Energy Outlook, 2009, International Energy Agency, Paris (see IEA website at (http://www.worldenergyoutlook.org/electricity.asp).)). The purpose of this paper is to find out how China has achieved this feat; how China’s rural energy projects were financed and whether China provides lessons for other countries to follow. The above questions are examined through an extensive literature review and the paper finds that unlike many other countries following the top-down approach to rural electrification, China has preferred to use a phased development through a bottom-up approach where local resources, and village level development and empowerment played an important role. While the state provided the overall guidance and financial support, the integrated rural development approach has produced local-level solutions that are subsequently integrated to produce an alternative development pathway. Strong government commitment, active local participation, technological flexibility and diversity, strong emphasis on rural development through agricultural and industrial activities and an emphasis on capacity building and training have also played an important role in the success. However, despite achieving the universal access objective, China still faces a number of issues related to rural electricity use, especially in terms of regional use patterns, long-term sustainability of supply and commercial operation of the systems. The Chinese model could serve as an inspiration for other developing countries trying to ensure universal electricity access. - Highlights: ► It analyses what China did and how China achieved 100% electrification. ► It explains the financing mechanism for rural electrification. ► It indicates what others can learn from this experience.
[en] Founded in response to the 1973 oil shock, the International Energy Agency (IEA) is arguably still the most important multilateral organization for energy-importing countries. Yet, the global geopolitical landscape has changed considerably since the IEA's creation. The rise of new energy consumers, new energy-related challenges and new international energy forums prompt a rethink of the agency's current role and institutional design. This article seeks to contribute to the recent debate on the future role of the IEA by examining specific drivers, avenues and constraints for institutional reform. The method used is SWOT analysis, which allows to summarize the key factors emanating from an assessment of an organization's internal characteristics (strengths and weaknesses) and its external environment (opportunities and threats). Building on this SWOT analysis, the article formulates a strategy for the IEA to remain the focal point in global energy governance. Key elements of this strategy include: stronger engagement with new consumers, rapprochement with OPEC, becoming a leading voice in the energy transition, and changing the agency's internal governance practices. - Highlights: ► The IEA is challenged by the rise of new consumers, threats and organizations. ► Assessment of the agency’s internal characteristics and external environment. ► The IEA needs to step up its outreach policy and fully embrace sustainable energy.
[en] This paper provides a description of the collaborative research program of the International Energy Agency. Focusing on the organization of the program, rather than attempting to cover the technical content of the research, the discussion conveys how its operation is facilitated through a framework that takes account of the interests of participating governments as well as technical objectives. Some Canadian activities in the IEA program are briefly described as illustration and a list of current IEA Research Agreements and associated activities is presented in an Appendix
[en] The International Energy Agency is described, including the role it plays in nuclear matters; the future energy situation as it appears from the Agency's vantage point is indicated, including the role perceived for nuclear power; the principal issues bearing on nuclear power development as seen in an international energy framework are identified; and a few comments are provided as to where the Agency thinks action is necessary
[en] Full text: In order to explore the potential role for fusion in a future energy market, and clarify the conditions under which fusion may be important in different world regions, a global energy scenario model, based on the model generator TIMES supplied by the International Energy Agency, has been developed. The model covers the whole of this century and includes fusion technologies. Results are reported here. (author)
[en] Understanding component reliability helps designers create more robust future designs and supports efficient and cost-effective operations of existing machines. The accelerator community can leverage the commonality of its high-vacuum and high-power systems with those of the magnetic fusion community to gain access to a larger database of reliability data. Reliability studies performed under the auspices of the International Energy Agency are the result of an international working group, which has generated a component failure rate database for fusion experiment components. The initial database work harvested published data and now analyzes operating experience data. This paper discusses the usefulness of reliability data, describes the failure rate data collection and analysis effort, discusses reliability for components with scarce data, and points out some of the intersections between magnetic fusion experiments and accelerators
[en] Sustainable deployment of bioenergy production systems requires that we achieve the ability to predict the impact of intensive harvesting on forest site productivity. During the period 1992-94, collaborators in International Energy Agency Bioenergy Agreement (IEA/BA) Task IX Activity ''Environmental consequences of intensive harvesting'' have refined protocols for conducting field and laboratory research designed to reduce uncertainty associated with predictive models; have published comprehensive reviews of the state of our knowledge related to long-term productivity in intensively managed forests; have sought to improve our understanding of recent research advances on theoretical and empirical levels in the areas of carbon cycling, sustainable forest management, and managing site fertility; and to direct this information to developing acceptable and efficient bioenergy production systems. This paper summarises the findings of these efforts, and indicates where future international collaboration is required to achieve the predictive ability required by the IEA/BA. (Author)
[en] There are increasing numbers of annual and periodical energy studies that look into future energy demand and sustainability issues. Among these the World Energy Outlook stands out as the most important futuristic energy study and analysis. The 2011 Outlook is in four parts and gives a full update of energy demand and supply projections to 2035. It analyses the possible evolution of energy markets under three scenarios. The core scenarios rest on common assumptions about macroeconomic conditions and population growth, while their assumptions about government policy differ. This year's Outlook offers an in-depth analysis of prospects for energy supply and use in Russia. It also provides an expanded assessment of the prospects for coal. It reviewed the future of nuclear energy after Fukushima, as well as the strategic challenges of energy poverty. Last it dealt with the important aspect of energy subsidies. In spite of its extensiveness and in depth analysis some of the Outlook assumptions and conclusions need careful analysis and review.
[en] In Brazil there are four operational research reactors, IEA-R1, IPR-R1, Argonauta and IPEN/MB-01. All are operated by the Brazilian National Commission of Nuclear Energy (Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear - CNEN). A brief description of each of these research reactors is given