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[en] Recent reports have demonstrated that lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced depressive-like behaviour is mediated via NMDA receptor. In this study, we further investigated the role of GluN2 A subunit of NMDA receptor in synaptic processes in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and hippocampus of GluN2 A knockout (KO) mice in LPS-induced depressive-like behavior. Our data suggest that LPS-treated mice, lacking GluN2 A subunit, did not exhibit depressive-like behaviour. This was accompanied by unaltered levels of IL-6 and significant changes in neuroplasticity markers and glutamate receptor subunits composition in PFC and hippocampus. In particular, an immune challenge in GluN2 A KO mice resulted in unchanged PSA-NCAM levels and proBDNF increase in both brain structures as well as in increase in BDNF levels in hippocampus. Furthermore, the absence of GluN2 A resulted in increased levels of all NCAM isoforms in PFC upon LPS which was followed with a decrease in GluN1 and GluN2B subunits. The levels of AMPA receptor subunits (GluA1, GluA3, and GluA4) in the hippocampus of GluN2 A mice were unaltered upon the treatment and abundantly present in the PFC of KO mice. These results indicate that the GluN2 A subunit is critical in neuroinflammation-related depression, that its absence abolishes LPS-induced depressive phenotype, sustains PSA-NCAM levels, increases proBDNF signalling in the PFC and hippocampus and potentiates synaptic stabilization through NCAM in the PFC upon an immune challenge. © 2018 Elsevier B.V.
[en] The corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) is involved in a number of physiological functions including pain perception. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the role of CRF1 receptor in the long-lasting post-surgical changes in somatic nociceptive thresholds and in local inflammatory responses, using genetically engineered mice lacking functional CRF1 receptor. Animals underwent a plantar incision under anaesthesia with remifentanil (80 μg/kg s.c.) and sevoflurane. Mechanical thresholds (von Frey) and plasma extravasation (Evan's blue) were evaluated at different time points. On postoperative day 20, mechanical thresholds had returned to baseline in CD1 mice (3.07 ± 6.21%), while B6,129CRHtklee mice presented significant hyperalgesia, which was similar in wild-type (WT) (− 29.81 ± 8.89%) and CRF1 receptor knockout (KO) (− 37.10 ± 10.75%) mice, showing strain differences. The administration of naloxone (1 mg/kg, s.c.) on postoperative day 21 produced hyperalgesia revealing surgery-induced latent pain sensitization. The extent of hyperalgesia was greater in KO versus WT mice, suggesting a role of CRF1 receptors in the upward modulation of endogenous opioid release. Furthermore, two days after surgery, plasma extravasation returned to baseline in WT mice but remained elevated in KO mice. In non-manipulated B6,129CRHtklee KO mice we observed an increase in the number of writhes (41.25 ± 11.36) versus WT (23.80 ± 4.71), while in the tail immersion test no differences could be detected. Our results show that CRF/CRF1 receptors seem to be a protective role in latent pain sensitization induced by surgery and in the local inflammatory response to injury. - Highlights: • We have used genetically engineered mice lacking CRF1 receptor to evaluate the role of this receptor in the long-lasting post-surgical changes in nociceptive thresholds and in local inflammatory responses. • Our results suggest a role of CRF/CRF1 receptor in latent pain sensitization induced by surgery and in the inflammatory processes. • The results of the present study may contribute to further understanding the mechanisms implicated in the latent pain sensitization and in the local inflammatory response to tissue injury.
[en] Partitioning defective 3-like protein (Par3L) is a recently identified cell polarity protein that plays an important role in mammary stem cell maintenance. Previously, we showed that high expression of Par3L is associated with poor survival in malignant colorectal cancer (CRC), but the underlying mechanism remained unknown. To this end, we established a Par3L knockout colorectal cancer cell line using the CRISPR/Cas system. Interestingly, reduced proliferation, enhanced cell death and caspase-3 activation were observed in Par3L knockout (KO) cells as compared with wildtype (WT) cells. Consistent with previous studies, we showed that Par3L interacts with a tumor suppressor protein liver kinase B1 (Lkb1). Moreover, Par3L depletion resulted in abnormal activation of Lkb1/AMPK signaling cascade. Knockdown of Lkb1 in these cells could significantly reduce AMPK activity and partially rescue cell death caused by Par3L knockdown. Furthermore, we showed that Par3L KO cells were more sensitive to chemotherapies and irradiation. Together, these results suggest that Par3L is essential for colorectal cancer cell survival by inhibiting Lkb1/AMPK signaling pathway, and is a putative therapeutic target for CRC. - Highlights: • Par3L knockout using the CRISPR/Cas system induces apoptosis in colorectal cancer cells. • Par3L interacts with Lkb1 and regulates the activity of AMPK signaling cascade. • Par3L knockout cells are more sensitive to treatment of different chemotherapy drugs and irradiation.
[en] The problems encountered in designing knockout reaction experiments are considered. The e,e'π+p triple coincidence experiment is discussed as an example, and the preliminary considerations for the design of an electron spectrometer are set forth. 1 reference
[en] The BALB/c mouse model for human respiratory syncytial virus infection has contributed significantly to our understanding of the relative role for CD4+ and CD8+ T cells to immune protection and pathogenic immune responses. To enable comparison of RSV-specific T cell responses in different mouse strains and allow dissection of immune mechanisms by using transgenic and knockout mice that are mostly available on a C57BL/6 background, we characterized the specificity, level and functional capabilities of CD8+ T cells during primary and secondary responses in lung parenchyma, airways and spleens of C57BL/6 mice. During the primary response, epitopes were recognized originating from the matrix, fusion, nucleo- and attachment proteins, whereas the secondary response focused predominantly on the matrix epitope. C57BL/6 mice are less permissive for hRSV infection than BALB/c mice, yet we found CD8+ T cell responses in the lungs and bronchoalveolar lavage, comparable to the responses described for BALB/c mice