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[en] EMWG: Mandate and Membership: • Mandate: To develop methodology for assessment of Gen IV systems against GIF Economic Goals: → Life cycle cost advantage over other systems (lower LUEC); → Comparable financial risks (total capital investment cost (TCIC)). Extended mandate: → Maintain cognizance of challenges and opportunities for integration of Gen IV systems with renewables on the grid; → Methodologies for economic impact of integration; → R&D challenges to meet flexibility requirements. Current membership: Canada, China, France, Japan, Russia, South Africa, South Korea, the USA, IAEA (observer).
[en] Life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) is one of basic steps in life cycle assessment methodology (LCA). This paper presents a comparative study of the LCIA of different life cycle inventories (LCI) for EU cements. The analysis unit used is the manufacture of 1 kg of cement, from 'cradle to gate'. The impact categories considered are those resulting from the manufacture of cement and include greenhouse effects, acidification, eutrophication and summer and winter smog, amongst others. The results of the study highlighted some inconsistencies in existing inventories. As for the LCIA, the main environmental interventions related to cement manufacture were classified and characterised and their effect on different impact categories analysed. Differences observed in evaluation of the impact of cement type were essentially related to their clinker content
[en] Document available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: The disposal costs of contaminated HEPA and THE filter elements have been proved to be disproportionately high compared with the cost of the elements themselves. Work published elsewhere (Moore, et el 1992; Bergman et al 1997) suggests that the cost of use of traditional, panel type, glass fibre HEPA filtration trains to the DOE was, during that period, $29.5 million, based on a five year life cycle, and including installation, testing, removal and disposal life cycle costs being based on estimates dating from 1987-1990. Within that cost estimate, $300 was the value given to the filter and $4, 450 was given to the peripheral activity. Clearly, if the $4, 450 component could be reduced, tremendous saving could ensue, in addition to the reduction of the legacy burden of waste volume. This issue exists for operators in both the US and in Europe. If HEPA filters could be cleaned to a condition where they could either be re-used or decontaminated to the extent that they could be stored as a lower cost wasteform or if HEPA/THE filter elements were available without any organic content likely to give rise to flammable or explosive decomposition gases during long term storage this would also reduce the costs and monitoring necessary in storage. (author)
[en] Although the life cycle environmental impacts of biofuels have been recently reported, studies that focus on specific regions and use real fleet data for the use phase are still lacking. In Pennsylvania, the Penn Security Fuels Initiative required 2% biodiesel (B2), effective on January 1, 2010, with higher blending levels required in the future if production thresholds are met. This study quantifies the environmental impacts of biodiesel blends to meet increasing regional biodiesel demand. A process life cycle model was developed using data collected from collaboration with Pennsylvania Department of Transportation. For PennDOT, both in-state and out-of-state production scenarios were analyzed to estimate the possible environmental impacts of biodiesel blends. The results show that fertilizer usage in the agricultural phase, soy oil extraction and refining, feedstock and fuel transportation, and fuel combustion in the use phase are main contributors to biodiesel’s life cycle environmental impacts for all blends. Comparing biodiesels with ultra low sulfur diesel, significant environmental tradeoffs exist between global warming potential and eutrophication. For Pennsylvania, an in-state farming and processing preference has the lowest environmental impacts for B5. However, the limited area of farmlands in Pennsylvania may not satisfy the state’s biodiesel needs with higher blending levels. - Highlights: ► This study quantifies the environmental impacts of biodiesel policy in Pennsylvania. ► Fertilizer usage, soy oil refining and fuel combustion are the main contributing stages. ► Environmental tradeoffs exist between global warming and eutrophication impact categories. ► In-state farming and processing has the lowest environmental impact at current production levels.
[en] This report documents a comparison of life-cycle costs of an assured isolation facility in Texas versus the life-cycle costs for a traditional belowground low-level radioactive waste disposal facility designed for the proposed site near Sierra Blanca, Texas
[en] This paper discusses life cycle management which involves a structured and comprehensive aging management program to ensure that significant aging effects are detected as early as possible and engineering, operations and maintenance actions are undertaken to control aging degradation and wear out of components
[en] During recent years, strict environmental regulations have been implemented by governments for the steelmaking industry in order to reduce their environmental impact. In the frame of the ULCOS project, we have developed a new methodological framework which combines the process integrated modelling approach with Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) method in order to carry out the Life Cycle Inventory of steelmaking. In the current paper, this new concept has been applied to the sinter plant which is the most polluting steelmaking process. It has been shown that this approach is a powerful tool to make the collection of data easier, to save time and to provide reliable information concerning the environmental diagnostic of the steelmaking processes
[en] A life cycle assessment was performed to quantify the non-renewable (fossil) energy use and global warming potential (GWP) in electricity generation from a typical gas fired combined cycle power plant in Singapore. The cost of electricity generation was estimated using a life cycle cost analysis (LCCA) tool. The life cycle assessment (LCA) of a 367.5 MW gas fired combined cycle power plant operating in Singapore revealed that hidden processes consume about 8% additional energy in addition to the fuel embedded energy, and the hidden GWP is about 18%. The natural gas consumed during the operational phase accounted for 82% of the life cycle cost of electricity generation. An empirical relation between plant efficiency and life cycle energy use and GWP in addition to a scenario for electricity cost with varying gas prices and plant efficiency have been established