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[en] Quantum enhanced sensitivity in optical tweezers based particle tracking was recently demonstrated. This has provided the necessary tool for quantum metrology to play an important role in biological measurements. Here we introduce the basic theory relevant to such optical tweezers experiments, and overview the significance of sub-shot noise limited sensitivity to practical experiments. In particular, biophysical experiments are subject to optical power constraints, which therefore limits the absolute sensitivity which is classically achievable. Quantum enhanced particle tracking can overcome this limit, and is therefore likely to play an important role in such biophysical experiments in the near future
[en] We investigate a pursuit-evasion differential game of countably many pursuers and one evader. Integral constraints are imposed on control functions of the players. Duration of the game is fixed and the payoff of the game is infimum of the distances between the evader and pursuers when the game is completed. Purpose of the pursuers is to minimize the payoff and that of the evader is to maximize it. Optimal strategies of the players are constructed, and the value of the game is found. It should be noted that energy resource of any pursuer may be less than that of the evader.
[en] In this paper, we propose a new filled function method for finding a global minimizer of global optimization with inequality constraints. The proposed filled function is a continuously differentiable function with only one parameter. Then, we can use classical local optimization methods to find a better minimizer of the proposed filled function with a few parameter adjustment. The numerical experiments are made and the results show that the proposed filled function method is effective.
[en] Considerable focus in theory has been given to the phenomenology of a fourth generation of quarks. And a considerable experimental effort was invested in searching for it. The resulting strong limits nearly rule out the existence of such an extra fourth generation. In light of this, we skip over the fourth generation and discuss the phenomenology of a fifth generation of quarks, highlighting the complete lack of experimental limits on its existence.
[en] Calculated and experimental data on the AC Stark shift of atomic levels in an external, subatomic-strength variable field are considered. Theoretical predictions concerning the disturbance of atomic spectra by fields of atomic and superatomic strength are discussed. The limiting value of the atomic AC Stark shift in a light-frequency radiation field is estimated. (reviews of topical problems)
[en] Risk-aversion is a fundamental parameter determining how humans act when required to operate in situations of risk. Its general applicability has been discussed in a companion presentation, and this paper examines methods that have been used in the past to measure it and their attendant problems. It needs to be borne in mind that risk-aversion varies with the size of the possible loss, growing strongly as the possible loss becomes comparable with the decision maker's assets. Hence measuring risk-aversion when the potential loss or gain is small will produce values close to the risk-neutral value of zero, irrespective of who the decision maker is. It will also be shown how the generally accepted practice of basing a measurement on the results of a three-term Taylor series will estimate a limiting value, minimum or maximum, rather than the value utilised in the decision. A solution is to match the correct utility function to the results instead
[en] The Cirel'son bound for the EPR experimental set-up provides a test of the distributivity of the observable algebra and is thus satisfied by Jordan algebras and distributive Segal algebras. By means of nondistributive algebras, the Cirel'son bound may be violated and the Rastall limit attained. It is also shown that Sherman's nondistributive Segal algebras are unsuitable as algebraic models of physical systems. (orig.)
[en] A summary of known finite strain states is presented; longitudinal strains (1+e) as measured in many rocks often range from 1 to 40 and 1 to 0.025. The time span available to produce such measureable strains in young orogenic zones seems to be less than 10 m.y., possibly less than 1 m.y., which constrains conventional strain rates into the range of 10-13 s-1 to 10-15 s-1. For both pure and simple shear (the most efficient way and much less efficient way to accumulate incremental strains, respectively) the ellipticity of the finite strain ellipse increases in a nonlinear manner. Finite strain variations in adjacent layers, which give rise to features such as cleavage refraction, arise with only slight differences in the strain rates within these layers