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[en] The LNG business in the Pacific Region is unique because there is no other source of energy in which seller and buyer sign contracts for 20-year periods. This long-term relationship is based on mutual buyer/seller cooperation, and mutual buyer/seller recognition of the financial and commercial challenges faced by all links in the LNG Supply Chain. However, there are now concerns that those involved in the LNG business were ignoring the fundamentals of the trade. The buyer expected the seller to absorb higher transportation costs, easing take or pay terms, more flexibility, evergreen options on uncommitted capacity, etc. On the other side, sellers expected larger baseload quantities, equitable sharing of LNG chain risks with consumers. (author)
[en] This paper reports that Activity continues to percolate in Qatar's massive liquefied natural gas export program. In the latest development, France's Ste. Nationale Elf Aquitaine and Japan's Sumitomo Corp. agreed to promote development of Qatar's LNG export project based on supergiant North Offshore gas field and step up discussions with potential buyers in coming months. Target markets lie in Japan and the Far East. Among other LNG operations, Columbia Gas System Inc. last week the it was told by Shell LNG Co. it is unlikely that presale conditions will be met prior to Shell LNG's scheduled purchase July 29 of 40.8% of the stock in Columbia LNG. Columbia LNG owns and LNG receiving terminal at Cove Point, Md., with a design sendout capacity of 1 bcfd of regasified LNG. That makes it the biggest in type U.S. Columbia the it had not received work on what action Shell LNG will take on the purchase agreement. However, failure to meet the undisclosed conditions will allow Shell LNG to end the agreement
[en] In recent years the environment surrounding new LNG development projects in terms of their economic viability has become increasingly severe, since crude oil prices remain bearish. Meanwhile, conditions for developing new gas fields are changing for the worse and the capital investments involved are spiralling upward. This report aims to clarify the issues and problems related to an increase in LNG supply, while addressing the problems facing Japan - the world's largest LNG importer. (author)
[en] Although the first LNG deliveries were 30 years ago from North Africa to Europe, the trade is now dominated by demand for LNG in the Far East. In 1994, 76 per cent of LNG deliveries worldwide were to the Far East compared with 22 per cent to Europe. Japan requires clean energy more than most other countries and gas is a prime fuel. The way the LNG trade will expand is with movement of LNG from Abu Dhabi and from Qatar to Japan dominating the new business. (author)
[en] To achieve a competitive LNG price for the consumers against other energy sources, reduction of LNG FOB (Free on Board) cost i.e. LNG cost at LNG ship flange, will be the key item. It is necessary to perform a many optimization studies (or value engineering) for each stage of the LNG project. These stages are: Feasibility study; Conceptual design - FEED (Front End Engineering and Design); EPC (Engineering, Procurement and Construction); Operation and maintenance. Since the LNG plant forms one part of the LNG chain, starting from gas production to LNG receiving, and requires several billion US dollar of investment, the consequences of a plant shut down on the LNG chain are clear, it is, therefore, important to get high availability which will also contribute the reduction of LNG FOB cost. (au) 25 refs
[en] The CNGS facility completes in 2010 its third year of physics with 9.39 1019 protons delivered on target and with the first ντ event observed in the OPERA experiment [N. Agafonova, Observation of a first ντ candidate in the OPERA experiment in the CNGS beam, Tech. Rep. (arXiv:1006.1623) (Jun 2010)]. The experience gained in operating this 500 kW neutrino beam facility, highlights of the beam performance and future prospects will be briefly discussed here.
[en] In the paper the overview of available technologies for Liquefied Natural Gas regasification is presented. Special emphasis is put on the Prof. Szargut's input to the topic. Both existing and theoretical solutions are shown. Additionally, the zero-order mathematical of on og the technologies is presented.
[en] The article develops an oligopoly model to analyze the potential role of LNG in the liberalization of gas market. The assumptions of the model and its results are then discussed using the forecasts of gas demand and production for the next two or three decades.
[en] The development of the domestic gas market in Indonesia, the world's largest liquefied natural gas producing country, is described as part of the overall impact of the country's oil and gas production. The first large scale use of natural gas in Indonesia was established in 1968 when a fertiliser plant using gas as the feedstock was built. Ultimately, through increased yields, this has enabled Indonesia to be self-sufficient in rice and an exporter of fertiliser. Problems which stand in the way of further developments include: capital, though Pertamina and PGN are perceived as attractive for foreign investment; the lack of a regulatory framework for gas; geographical constraints, among them the fact that the gas deposits are remote from the largest population concentrations; lack of infrastructure. There are nevertheless plans for expansion and the provision of an integrated gas pipeline system. Pertamina, which has responsibility for all oil and gas developments, and PGN, whose primary role has been as a manufacturer and distributor of gas, are now working together in the coordination of all gas activities. (10 figures). (UK)