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[en] According to an estimate of Work Efficiency Association, grain production costs can be reduced by 0.3 - 0.17 FIM/kg by replacing hot air drying of grain by a wet preservation method. As the grain is used as raw material of bioethanol, a cost saving of 0.08 - 0.16 FIM/kg is achievable in the costs at factory, although the dry matter and carbohydrate losses and the effect of the preservation method are considered. Compared to cold air drying, a saving of 0.05 FIM/kg can be achieved in the most favourable alternative. However, the wet-preserved grain has technical and economical effects on the production process of ethanol, and especially the fermentation process should be as good as that of dry grain. Air-tightly stored barley seems to suit well for fermentation, as well as crushed and preserved barley (AIVII solution). On the other hand, the weak capacity of fermentation may prevent the use of grain preserved with propion acid. The total costs of the integrating wet preservation and ethanol process were not determined in 1993. (orig.)
[en] The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Bioenergy Technologies Office (BETO) promotes the production of an array of liquid fuels and fuel blendstocks from lignocellulosic biomass feedstocks by funding fundamental and applied research that advances the state of technology in biomass collection, conversion, and sustainability. As part of its involvement in this program, the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) investigates the technical, economic, and environmental performance of different feedstock supply systems and their impacts on the downstream conversion processes.
[en] The aim of the survey is to propose a methodology to calculate the externalisation associated with the liquid bio fuels cycle. The report defines the externalisation from a theoretical point of view and classifies them. The reasons to value the externalisation are explained as well as the existing methods. Furthermore, an evaluation of specific environmental and non-environmental externalisation is also presented. The report also reviews the current situation of the transport sector, considering its environmental effects and impacts. The progress made by the ExtemE and ExternE-Transport projects related the externalisation of transport sector is assessed. Finally, the report analyses the existence of different economic instruments to internalize the external effects of the transport sector as well as other aspects of this internalization. (Author) 58 refs
[en] Atomization is an essential process in the combustion of liquid fuels which has been the subject of a great deal of research. Nevertheless, there remains a large gap in the understanding of its essential features. This paper is a step in the direction of bridging that gap. (author)
[en] This project was undertaken to provide a consistent and thorough review of the full range of processes for producing liquid fuels from biomass to compare both alternative technologies and processes within those technologies in order to identify the most promising opportunities that deserve closer attention. Thermochemical conversion includes both indirect liquefaction through gasification, and direct liquefaction through pyrolysis and liquefaction in pressurized solvents. Biochemical conversion is based on a different set of feedstocks. Both acid and enzyme hydrolysis are included followed by fermentation. The liquid products considered include gasoline and diesel hydrocarbons and conventional alcohol fuels of methanol and ethanol. Results are given both as absolute fuel costs and as a comparison of estimated cost to market price. In terms of absolute fuel costs, thermochemical conversion offers the lowest cost products, with the least complex processes generally having an advantage. Biochemical routes are the least attractive. The most attractive processes from comparing production costs to product values are generally the alcohol fuels which enjoy a higher market value. (author)
[en] Fast pyrolysis of biomass is one of the most promising technologies for converting biomass to liquid fuels. As a result, this technology has gained extensive attention in the last two decades. The pyrolysis liquids, known as the bio-oils, have been regarded as promising candidates to replace petroleum fuels to be used in various thermal devices. However, bio-oils are totally different from petroleum fuels. Therefore, the successful utilization of bio-oils in terms of liquid fuels requires adequate understanding of their fuel properties. This review concentrates on the detailed fuel properties of bio-oils and discusses how these properties affect the utilization of bio-oils.
[en] Highlights: • Systems approach modelling of residues-based bioenergy system demonstrated for the first time. • Sources of dynamics in primary forest residues-based bioenergy systems have been identified. • Steady availability of mature stands simulated over a time horizon of 100 years is presented. • Systems integration is critical for sustainability of forest residues-based bioenergy. - Abstract: Lack of access to modern energy, such as electricity, liquid fuels and gas, limits socio-economic development in developing countries, particularly in rural communities. Primary forest residues are potential bioresources for producing modern forms of energy beyond traditional biomass, which can be supplied to economic activities in the rural communities. However, variations in production of primary forest residues over time exacerbate sustainability challenges for developing sustainable bioenergy systems based on the residues supply chains integrated with timber production. A model is presented showing dynamics of primary forest residues, as bioenergy feedstocks, stemming from forest plantations management, harvesting systems, and stakeholder influence and interest along the bioenergy production value chain. Using a case study of the Viphya forest plantations established for timber production in Malawi, management and harvesting systems, sawmilling technologies, residues production and post harvesting management were assessed and key sustainability challenges along the residues supply chain have been identified. The decreasing stocks of mature stand over time results from over-exploitation for timber production, delayed replanting, high death rate of replanted trees and underinvestment in plantations management. An integrated framework for forest management and bioenergy production can promote sustainable harvesting of mature stand for timber and primary forest residues production through synchronization of harvesting and replanting of timber and establishment of thresholds for harvesting timber to generate residues at a rate that can match with the scale and rate of the bioenergy conversion. The framework can promote stability, availability and reliability of timber and primary forest residues supply for bioenergy production.