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[en] The aim of the study was to analyse trends and regime shifts in time series of monthly, seasonal and annual precipitation in the eastern Baltic countries (Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia) during 1966–2015. Data from 54 stations with nearly homogeneous series were used. The Mann-Kendall test was used for trend analysis and the Rodionov test for the analysis of regime shifts. Rather few statistically significant trends (p < 0.05) and regime shifts were determined. The highest increase (by approximately 10 mm per decade) was observed in winter precipitation when a significant trend was found at the large majority of stations. For monthly precipitation, increasing trends were detected at many stations in January, February and June. Weak negative trends revealed at few stations in April and September. Annual precipitation has generally increased, but the trend is mostly insignificant. The analysis of regime shifts revealed some significant abrupt changes, the most important of which were upward shifts in winter, in January and February precipitation at many stations since 1990 or in some other years (1989, 1995). A return shift in the time series of February precipitation occurred since 2003. The most significant increase in precipitation was determined in Latvia and the weakest increase in Lithuania.
[en] It is often claimed that pollution reductions can be achieved at lower cost in Central and Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union, because more possibilities exist to update production processes and reduce waste. To date, however, there has been little or no systematic evaluation of what the costs actually are in these countries. The main purpose of this paper is to partially fill this research gaps using firm-level data from Lithuania. Abatement cost estimates for key air pollutants are presented based on investments made in Lithuania during 1993-4. The paper also attempts to estimate the demand for pollution directly using data on pollution charges from 1994. Using both methods, it is shown that for at least some key pollutants marginal and average abatement costs are probably substantially lower in Lithuania than in western countries. (Author)
[en] Data are presented on the atmospheric and environmental pollution in Lithuania by combustion products from power plants, industrial factories and traffic cars. A retrospective of the fuel budget and energy balance is given. The balance approach was also applied to the emission rates of toxic substances, its dynamics was shown and areal distribution evaluated on the most important sources of pollution. Pollution rates in different regions of Lithuania are shown, the effects of the neighbouring states on the overall pollution of Lithuanian nature were found. These of reducing the trends of pollution are formulated in the concluding part. (author). 7 refs., 4 tabs., 7 figs
[en] The biogas production resources in Lithuania and their structure have been ascertained. The total technical potential of biogas production has been calculated to make 639 million m3 per year (4080 GWh). The biogas production feasibilities in the country have been estimated. (author). 3 refs., 3 tabs., 2 figs
[en] Environmental impact of energy systems and an improvement of environmental situation in Lithuania are discussed. The number of polluting plants exceeds 40 thousand, the most harmful are power plants and boilers. The non-homogenous distribution of power and industrial plants cause very different contamination in Lithuania. fig
[en] Soil and meadow grass were sampled in the whole territory of Lithuania in 1992-2000. For the laboratory experiment, spring wheat Triticum aestivum L. 'Nandu' was used because its root system type is similar to that of perennial meadow grass. The 137Cs soil-to-plant transfer factor of spring wheat was determined and the results were compared with the predicted values using a compartment model of soil-to-plant transfer and with the results of the field experiment. The results of comparing the measured and calculated transfer factor using the model show rather good coincidence, however, the calculated values were overestimated. The reason for overestimation can be that the uptake rate is not influenced only by the soil-to-plant transfer. The results of the model experiment (from 0.005 m2 x kg-1 to 0.053 m2 x kg-1) are close to those of the field measurements for grass (from 0.013 m2 x kg-1 in 1992-1995 to 0.10 m2 x kg-1 in 1999-2000). (author)
[en] Lithuania has developed several important climate change mitigation policy documents however there are no attempts in Lithuania to develop local climate change mitigation policies or to decentralize climate change mitigation policy. Seeking to achieve harmonization and decentralization of climate change mitigation and energy policies in Lithuania the framework for local climate change mitigation strategy need to be developed taking into account requirements, targets and measures set in national climate change mitigation and energy policy documents. The paper will describe how national climate change mitigation and energy policies can be implemented via local energy and climate change mitigation plans. The aim of the paper is to analyze the climate change mitigation policy and its relationship with policies promoting sustainable energy development in Lithuania and to present a framework for local approaches to climate change mitigation in Lithuania, in the context of the existing national and supra-national energy, climate change, and rural development policies. - Highlights: ► The framework for local energy action plans is offered. ► The structural support possibilities are assessed with respect to the Lithuanian legal base. ► The proposals are given for further promotion of sustainable energy at the local level.
[en] The newest results gained during analysis of perspectives and technical - economical conditions of nuclear energy usage continuation in Lithuania are presented. After the compulsory premature closure of Ignalina NPP the negative power balance and the shortage of power generating capacity can emerge in the energy sector of Lithuania. This problem can arise already in 2010. Depending on rate of growth of economy the extent of shortage of power generating capacity can range from -50 MW to -583 MW with evident trend for further growing. The positive power balance could be restored if new nuclear power plant (NPP) or new combined cycle gas turbine power plants (CCGT PP) are erected. Feasibility and competitiveness of the new NPP and CCGT PP are compared, analysed and evaluated. Analysis is performed taking into account volume of investments for construction, level of discount rate, forecast of changes of the price of primary energy sources, possible loading level of a new power plant. At the case of low plant loading level (7000 hours per year) the electricity production costs are almost the same for NPP and for CCGT PP. However, increasing the plant's loading level up to 8000 hours per year changes the ratio of electricity production costs to positive for NPP. Comparison of expenses for fuel and total expenses shows unchallenged priority of NPP against CCGT PP. Estimating the forthcoming inevitable growth of price for natural gas, economic advantage of nuclear energy production seems to be obvious. The future energy balance for Baltic states, NORDEL countries, Germany and Russia is also analysed. Deficit of electricity is foreseen in Baltic states and NORDEL countries already after 2007, in Russia - after 2010. Even Central and South European countries (especially those, which are planning to cancel usage of nuclear energy) are forecasting shortage of electricity in 2015 - 2020 years. Such situation in European energy market could be treated as additional argument for further development of energy generating capacities of Lithuania and successfully used for excessive energy export. Using the results presented it is substantiated, that a new modern nuclear power plant would be a competitive and even more favourable option for Lithuania in respect to traditional energy production technologies based on burning fossil fuel. (author)