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[en] Services provided by En-Pro International, a company based in Oshawa, Ontario, whose stock in trade is to provide companies with accurate and reliable pricing and contract information about propane are discussed. The discussion is in the form of ten frequently asked questions and the appropriate answers, including such matters as cylinder rental charges, the reasons for price fluctuations, the pros and cons of fixed and floating prices, ways to ensure that a price quote given by a potential supplier is acceptable, and competitive supply alternatives
[en] In 1993, the government of India introduced a parallel marketing system for petroleum products, particularly for liquefied petroleum gas (LPG). LPG, under the parallel marketing system, is distributed at higher price without any subsidy. The government distributors, however, distribute LPG at subsidized rate. The consumers who get LPG at higher price, therefore, opt for a mixed energy use. The present study, based on a field survey, deals with the pattern of this mixed energy use and its environmental consequences. (author)
[en] Turkish auto-gas market grew uncontrollably trough its initial years, leading to auto-gas product, retrofit cars, auto-gas filing stations and conversion shops in compliance with standards. Moreover, standards were not even adequate for a healthy market. Auto-gas accidents occurred due to mis-applications. Consequently, real benefits of auto-gas could not come into the picture, and general public as well as auto-gas customers came to perceive auto-gas as an inferior, unsafe and low-performance fuel. Today's market is really different than the markets in its initial years and it has covered a long way towards sustainability. To exemplify, the standards and inspections are well established and more strict than before. The image of auto-gas has improved considerably and now customers know that auto-gas is not only economic but also environment-friendly safe and good performance. The critical factor, bringing the market into sustainability and healthiness, are the developments in 4 crucial areas, namely, the government, LPG distribution companies, OEMs and auto-gas conversion firms and lastly, customers. Another important key success factor is cooperation between these 4 forces. The presentation will mainly focus on developments in these areas. (author)
[en] The auto propane industry began in Canada in the 1980s as a result of government policies favoring alternate fuels. Total propane demand is ca 4.1 billion liters, with over 30% of this demand in the automotive fuel market. This market is concentrated in Ontario, British Columbia, and Alberta. The total number of propane-powered vehicles in Canada is ca 140,000, the number of propane service stations is over 5,000, and there are ca 850 shops where automobiles can be converted to run on propane. The number of conversions was 15,000 in 1992, down from nearly 23,000 in 1991. The cost of conversion ranges from $1,500 to $2,000. The advantages of propane over gasoline is lower emissions, notably in cold weather, and good performance. To maintain propane's environmental advantage, initiatives are being led by the Canadian Auto Propane Council to develop a multifaceted technical strategy. This strategy includes cooperation with the auto industry to encourage original equipment manufacture of a propane car, participation in gaseous and liquid fuel injection projects designed to permit vehicle conversion, introduction of a stand-alone automatic stop fill valve to eliminate emissions in the filling process, and research on conversion of medium- and heavy-duty engines. Cooperation with the industry in the USA is also recommended
[en] Contains Executive Summary and Chapters on: Introduction; Technology trends; CRINE and Norsok; Contracting strategies; Market trends; Industry segmentation and structure; Trends by segment; Integrated service contractors; Engineering contractors and consultants; Fabricators and shipyards; Installation contractors; Maintenance operations and production contractors. (Author)
[en] Traditionally the LPG business is regarded as a low-tech area. Safety has always been top priority, but the applied technology in production as well as distribution has by and large not changed much in the course of the business' 60-year-history. Only few has realised that changes are the necessary mark of the future for this business. Internal and external requirements to the management demand a much higher level of information. The trend dictates a future demand for documented safety. This documentation will only become available through introduction of the latest technology in the business. A technology that also provides decision-making tools for the management to ensure the continued optimum operation of the business. (au)
[en] This article provides an overview of the current state of the liquefied petroleum gases (LPG) market in sub Saharan Africa (SSA) and analyses the supply and demand patterns, the constraints on supply imposed by the insufficient output from refineries unable to meet the increasing demand, and institutional and regulatory issues. Details are given of the pricing policies, the economic benefits that could be obtained by increasing the scale of operations, the use of subsidies, private sector participation, and LPG activities in Angola, Cameroon, the Congo, and the Ivory Coast. The role of the World Bank in the Africa Gas Initiative to promote the use of natural gas reserves in SSA, and requirements for developing the LPG market are discussed
[en] Complete text of publication follows. The problem of radon, a ubiquitously present radioactive gas, is an important global problem of radiation hygiene concerning the world population. Measurement of radon, thoron and their progeny is important because the radiation dose to human population due to inhalation of radon and its progeny contribute more than 50% of the dose from all sources of radiation, both naturally occurring and man-made (UNSCEAR, 2000). The estimated level of health risk associated with average indoor radon levels is much higher than those due to other environmental carcinogen (Nazaroff and Nero, 1988). Recently, a pooled analysis of seven case control studies showed a positive correlation between residential exposure to radon and lung cancer (Krewski et al., 2005). The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) currently recommends that all levels beneath the third floor be tested for radon (USEPA, 2005). In this light, tracking indoor radon concentration is thus fundamental from health and hygiene point of view. In the present work, the inhalation dose rates, annual effective dose and the lifetime fatality risk to the workers in the LPG bottling plant due to exposure from the mixed field of radon and thoron were measured. The measurements have been carried out by using tracks etch technique using solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTDs) has been used. It is one of the most widely used techniques for radon measurement. The radon and thoron concentration and the inhalation dose were found to vary from 7.78±2.02 Bq/m3 to 59.01±5.57 Bq/m3, 1.16±0.28 Bq/m3 to 65.08±5.09 Bq/m3, and 0.23 mSv/y to 2.29 mSv/y respectively. The concentration of radon daughters was found to vary from 0.84 mWL to 6.38 mWL, the concentration of thoron daughters was found to vary from 0.03 mWL to 1.76 mWL, the annual exposure due to radon and thoron daughters, collectively, was found to vary from 0.036 WLM to 0.273 WLM, the life time fatality risk was found to vary from 0.11 x 10-4 to 0.82 x 10-4 and the annual effective dose from radon and thoron (PAEC) was found to vary from 0.14 mSv/y to 1.06 mSv/y. The measurements indicated moderate to high levels of radon/thoron concentrations at different locations in the environment of the LPG bottling plant. At certain locations, the inhalation dose is almost 100% was more than that the Global average value (1mSv). However the dose levels observed in the environment of the LPG bottling plant were marginally below the ICRP recommendations (20mSv) for workers. In the light of these findings, the LPG bottling plants may affect doses from external irradiation and the inhalation of radon decay products is significant from health point of view.
[en] This paper presents a detailed study of the structure, market power and competition in the distribution sector for liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), within Spain. It is a segment of energy consumption and supply that is not often given serious attention, despite the fact that LPG is a crucial source of energy to many households, in many countries in Europe and in the rest of the world. Despite formally being an open and liberalized sector, the Spanish LPG market is characterized by high concentration within the industry; Repsol Butano, the dominant operator, practically controls the entire value chain. These structural characteristics probably justify state intervention in the form of price fixing, in order to guarantee accessible prices for final consumers. Nevertheless, applying this tool has had negative effects on the opening and liberalization process. On the one hand, it fails to encourage entry or an increase in the participation of new operators; on the other, it has considerably deteriorated the economic and financial performance of the distribution agents that are subjected to two strong forces. First, the dominant operator looks after its own interests and its income; and second, the Government tries to defend the interests of final consumers by fixing prices that inadequately remunerate the activity. This shows the contradictory regulatory actions that try to promote competition, and then establish mechanisms to regulate activity by fixing prices that act as price limits. These government set prices discourage new competitors from entering
[en] This order applies to the creation, organization of cell promotion of liquefied petroleum gas (GPGPL) fuel and determining the responsibilities of its officials. This cell created near the Minister of Energy and Oil's mission is to: - conduct promotional activities, awareness and extension of LPG; - Facilitate the acquisition of equipment of LPG; - Check prices for wind LPG; create synergy between the various actors in the field of LPG; - Collect the given consumption of LPG and analysis. That this Order repeals all previous provisions contrary particular order number 000039 of 21 August 2012 establishing and organizing a cell promotion Butane Gas and determining the responsibilities of its officials
[fr]Cet arrete porte sur la creation, organisation d'une cellule de promotion du gaz liquifie(GPGPL) carburant et determinant les attributions de ses responsables. cette cellule creee au pres du Ministre charge de l'Energie et du petrole a pour mission de : - mener des actions de promotions, de sensibilisation et du vulharisation du GPL carburant; - faciliter l'acquisition des equipements du GPL carburant; - controler les prix de vent du GPL carburant; creer la synergie entre les differents acteurs intervenant dans le domaine du GPL carburant; - collecter les donnes sur la consommation du GPL carburant et les analyser. Ce present arrete abroge toutes dispositions anterieures contraires notamment arrete numero 000039 du 21 aout 2012 portant creation et organisation d'une cellule de promotion du Gaz Butane et determinant les attributions de ses responsables.