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[en] This article describes the process and progress of the decommissioning of the Yankee Rowe Nuclear Power Plant in Massachusetts. In 32 years Yankee Rowe was a safe, reliable and economical power source for New England. The uncertain near-term availability of disposal facilities for low-level waste, spent fuel, and other high level waste presents special challenges to the decommissioning. The decommissioning plan was submitted to the USNRC in December 1993 with final approval anticipated in 1994. Topics highlighted in this article are the decommissioning plan and the component removal program
[en] An aerial radiological survey to measure terrestrial gamma radiation was carried out over the New England Nuclear Corporation facility located in Billerica, Massachusetts. Gamma ray data were collected over a 2.8 km2 area centered on the facility by flying north-south lines spaced 60 m apart. Processed data indicated that detected radioisotopes and their associated gamma ray exposure rates were consistent with those expected from normal background emitters, except at certain locations described in this report. Average exposure rates 1 m above the ground, as calculated from the aerial data, are presented in the form of an isopleth map. No ground sample data were taken at the time of the aerial survey
[en] Long term measurements of NO3- concentrations in two estuaries on Buzzards Bay, Massachusetts, USA, coupled with a large, step-wise increase in the groundwater NO3- to one of those estuaries, have allowed the effects on the estuary to be isolated and quantified. The results show that prior to the abrupt increase, the estuary responded in a linear manner to NO3- input, as suggested in the literature. After the abrupt increase, the estuary initially absorbed the greatly increased groundwater input, and after a year the response became a fluctuating variable with periods of less than 1 year. It is proposed that this indicates increased recycling from the sediments. This behavior is consistent with models of nutrient-induced regime shift in its early stages, as described in the literature. Future isotopic analysis is suggested as a means to confirm the estuary mechanism.
[en] Mercury analyses were performed on nine different rain samples collected from Connecticut and Cape Cod (Massachusetts) coastal locations. Concentrations of Hg averaged 10 +- 5 ng l-1 for 29 determinations. Total washout of Hg from the atmosphere was not observed, suggesting that the quantity of Hg in rain may depend on the simple solution of various volatile species of Hg according to Henry's law. Existing global models use concentrations of 30--80 ng l-1 and appear to overestimate the rainfall Hg flux to the ocean
BackgroundRecent data have demonstrated multiple benefits of intra- and postoperative fluid restriction in major abdominal surgery; however, data regarding the outcomes of fluid restriction in cytoreductive surgery and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemoperfusion (CRS/HIPEC) are limited. This study evaluates the safety and short-term clinical outcomes of restricted intraoperative fluid therapy in CRS/HIPEC.
MethodsThis was a single-institution, retrospective review of all CRS/HIPEC procedures performed at the University of Massachusetts Medical School between January 2009 and July 2017. Recorded variables included demographics, intraoperative factors, 60-day postoperative complications, and length of stay (LOS). Outcomes based on the use of intraoperative permissive fluid therapy (PFT) versus restrictive fluid therapy (RFT) were compared.
ResultsOverall, 169 CRS/HIPEC cases were performed during the study period; 84 were managed with PFT and 85 were managed with RFT. No significant differences were identified in patient demographics. There was a decrease in intraoperative administration of crystalloid (8.0 vs. 4.4 L, p < 0.01), colloid (900 vs. 300 mL, p < 0.01), and blood transfusion (0.26 vs. 0.04 units, p < 0.01) in the RFT cohort. LOS was reduced from 11.5 to 9.7 days (p < 0.01) and the incidence of any 60-day complication decreased from 45 to 28% (p = 0.02) in the RFT group. The overall 90-day mortality rate was 0.6% (n = 1). Adjusted logistic regression demonstrated the odds of having a Clavien–Dindo grade III or higher complication was 0.31 (95% confidence interval 0.10–0.95) with RFT.
ConclusionIntraoperative RFT with standard anesthesia monitoring devices can be safely used in CRS/HIPEC and is associated with a decreased LOS and decreased rate of postoperative complications.
[en] Background and purpose: To update and summarize the experience at the Massachusetts General Hospital of a treatment program of high-dose preoperative irradiation, surgical re-resection, and intraoperative radiation therapy (IORT) as a salvage treatment for patients with recurrent rectal or rectosigmoid carcinoma. Patients and methods: From June 1978 to February 1997, the records of 69 patients with locally recurrent rectal carcinomas or rectosigmoid carcinomas without metastases referred for consideration of IORT were reviewed. Forty-nine patients received IORT and local control and disease-free survival curves were calculated using the actuarial method of Kaplan–Meier. Results: The 5-year overall survival, local control and disease-free survival rates of 49 patients receiving IORT were 27, 35, and 20%, respectively. Thirty-four patients who underwent a macroscopic complete resection had a significantly better 5-year overall survival than the remaining 15 patients with gross residual disease (33 vs. 13%, P=0.05, log rank). For those patients, local control and disease-free survival rates were 46 and 27%, respectively. Patients with a microscopic complete resection had a superior 5-year overall survival than partially resected patients (40 vs. 14%, P=0.0001, log rank). Chemotherapy had no significant influence on overall or disease-free survival. Conclusion: The current analysis shows the importance of a microscopic complete resection in a multi-modality approach with IORT for survival and local control. Salvage is rare for patients undergoing subtotal resection.